Role Played by Science and Technology in Disaster Risk Reduction: From Framework Planning to Implementation
Toshio Koike*1,, Haruo Hayashi*2, Kenji Satake*3, Kenichi Tsukahara*4, Akiyuki Kawasaki*5, Yusuke Amano*6, Kaoru Takara*7, Setsuko Saya*8, Naohiro Nishiguchi*9, Satoru Nishikawa*10, Keiko Tamura*11, Kenzo Hiroki*12, Rajib Shaw*13, and Tetsuya Ikeda*1
*1International Centre for Water Hazard and Risk Management (ICHARM), Public Works Research Institute (PWRI)
1-6 Minamihara, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8516, Japan
*2National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Resilience (NIED), Ibaraki, Japan
*3Earthquake Research Institute, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
*4Department of Civil Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan
*5Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
*6Water and Disaster Management Bureau, Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, Tokyo, Japan
*7Graduate School of Advanced Integrated Studies in Human Survivability, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan
*8International Cooperation Division, Disaster Management Bureau, Cabinet Office, Tokyo, Japan
*9Japan Bosai Platform, Japan Innovation Network, Tokyo, Japan
*10Disaster Mitigation Research Center, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan
*11Risk Management Office, Niigata University, Niigata, Japan
*12National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies (GRIPS), Tokyo, Japan
*13Graduate School of Media and Governance, Keio University, Kanagawa, Japan
The Hyogo Framework for Action, which was adopted in 2005, promotes the creation and strengthening of national platforms designated as national integrated disaster risk reduction (DRR) mechanisms. The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030 (the Sendai Framework) emphasizes the role played by science and technology in DRR decision-making and the importance of the support provided by the international scientific and technological community in DRR. The Global Forum on Science and Technology for Disaster Resilience 2017 (Tokyo Forum 2017) agreed to formulate guidelines supporting national platforms for DRR by efficiently utilizing scientific and technological tools and producing a synthesis report on disaster science and technology. Since each country is attributed the primary responsibility for implementing the aforementioned agreement according to its national needs and conditions, it should develop a mechanism that allows all stakeholders to share information on science and technology for DRR in their own language. Each national platform should review the status and issues of ongoing DRR efforts based on scientific and technological knowledge, enhance multi-sectoral discussion among various stakeholders about how DRR should be implemented in the country, and achieve consensus on the practical measures to be designed and implemented from a macro perspective. This paper defines a series of actions to be performed by the national platform of each country as the “Nation’s Synthesis” and proposes the relevant functions and international cooperation frameworks to be established.
-  The United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNISDR), “Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA),” https://www.unisdr.org/files/1037_hyogoframeworkforactionenglish.pdf [accessed July 10, 2018]
-  A. Singh, “Disaster Law: Emerging Thresholds,” Routledge, 2018.
-  UNISDR, “Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030,” https://www.unisdr.org/files/43291_sendaiframeworkfordrren.pdf [accessed July 10, 2018]
-  H. Kameda, “Disaster Reduction Hyperbase (DRH) – Conceptual Development and Production,” Asian J. of Environment and Disaster Management, Vol.3, pp. 5-13, doi: 10.3850/S1793924011000551, 2011.
-  K. Poljansek, M. M. Ferrer, T. D. Groeve, and I. Clark, “Science for Disaster Risk Management 2017: Knowing better and losing less,” Publications Office of the European Union, ISBN: 978-92-79-60679-3, 2017.
-  UNISDR, “Guidelines National Platforms for Disaster Risk Reduction,” https://www.unisdr.org/files/601_engguidelinesnpdrr.pdf [accessed July 10, 2018]
-  UNISDR, “Findings of the Review of National Platforms for Disaster Risk Reduction 2012-2013,” https://www.preventionweb.net/files/35266_nationalplatformsreview.finalreport.pdf [accessed July 10, 2018]
-  International Council for Science, “A Science Plan for Integrated Research on Disaster Risk: Addressing the challenge of natural and human-induced environmental hazards,” ISBN: 978-0-930357-66-5, 2008.
-  Science Council of Japan (SCJ), “Disaster Risk Reduction and Promotion of International Research on Disaster Prevention and Mitigation – Recommendations for Implementation of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Reduction and Tokyo Statement,” http://www.scj.go.jp/ja/info/kohyo/pdf/kohyo-23-t225-1-en.pdf [accessed July 10, 2018]
-  UNISDR, “Tokyo Statement,” 2015, http://wci.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp/events/TokyoConference2015/en/pdf/Tokyo.Statement_Action.Agenda.pdf [accessed July 10, 2018]
-  A. Aitsi-Selmi et al., “Reflections on a science and technology agenda for 21st century disaster risk reduction: Based on the scientific content of the 2016 UNISDR Science and Technology Conference on the Implementation of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030,” Int. J. of Disaster Risk Science, Vol.7, Issue 1, pp. 1-29, 2016.
-  UNISDR, “Global Forum on Science and Technology for Disaster Resilience 2017,” http://wci.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp/ResilienceForum2017/ [accessed July 10, 2018]