Vulnerability Characteristics of Tsunamis in Indonesia: Analysis of the Global Centre for Disaster Statistics Database
Anawat Suppasri*1,, Abdul Muhari*2, Syamsidik*3, Ridwan Yunus*4, Kwanchai Pakoksung*1, Fumihiko Imamura*1, Shunichi Koshimura*1, and Ryan Paulik*5
*1International Research Institute of Disaster Science (IRIDeS), Tohoku University
468-1 Aoba, Aramaki-Aza, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-0845, Japan
*2Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries, Jakarta, Indonesia
*3Tsunami and Disaster Mitigation Research Center (TDMRC), Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh, Indonesia
*4United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) Indonesia Country Office, Jakarta, Indonecia
*5National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA), Wellington, New Zealand
Regional disaster data are important for understanding the characteristics of disasters and for identifying potential mitigation measures. However, many countries have no official disaster database that includes information such as numbers of deaths or damaged buildings for each disaster event. The Global Centre for Disaster Statistics (GCDS) was established to assist countries and organizations in the collection of disaster data. At present, a significant amount of tsunami disaster data are available from Indonesia, which will be used to demonstrate its application for analyzing vulnerability characteristics of historical tsunamis. There are 53 data points covering 13 tsunami events between the year 1861 and 2014. Based on data availability, five tsunami events, namely the 1977 Sumba, the 2004 Indian Ocean, the 2006 Java, the 2010 Mentawai, and the 2011 Great East Japan, were selected. Numbers of deaths and damaged buildings were used in combination with hazard data to estimate vulnerability, defined as the ratio between maximum flow depth against death and building damage ratios. Numbers of evacuees were initially used to estimate actual numbers of exposed population but it was later discovered that this parameter overestimated the exposed population in certain cases. As a result, this study presents the vulnerability characteristics of people and buildings in Indonesia, exposed to unusual or extreme tsunamis, mostly in a condition without or with limited access to official warnings. In brief, a maximum flow depth of 5 m caused an approximate 100% death ratio in the majority of Indonesian tsunamis in this study. On the other hand, death ratio in the 2011 Japan tsunami was limited to 10% because of the early warning and high disaster awareness. Effective disaster risk reduction activities such as official warnings, evacuations, and tsunami education were observed for certain locations. Lastly, adding hazard and population data at the village level is recommended for improving the collection of future tsunami disaster data for the GCDS database.
-  Global Historical Tsunami Database, National Geophysical Data Center / World Data Service (NGDC/WDS), National Geophysical Data Center, NOAA, doi:10.7289/V5PN93H7, https://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/tsu_db.shtml [accessed March 11, 2018]
-  Historical Tsunami Database for the World Ocean (HTDB/WLD), Institute of Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Geophysics, Tsunami Laboratory, Novosibirsk, Russia, http://tsun.sscc.ru/tsunami-database/index.php [accessed March 11, 2018]
-  Japan Tsunami Trace Database, International Research Institute of Disaster Science, Tohoku University, http://tsunami-db.irides.tohoku.ac.jp/tsunami/toppage.php [accessed March 11, 2018]
-  Indonesian National Agency for Disaster Management, https://bnpb.go.id/en/bnpb-laravel [accessed March 29, 2018]
-  Indonesian National Institute of Aeronautics and Space, https://lapan.go.id/ [accessed March 29, 2018]
-  ALOS – PALSAR, http://www.eorc.jaxa.jp/ALOS/en/about/palsar.htm [accessed March 29, 2018]
-  A. Suppasri, N. Hasegawa, F. Makinoshima, F. Imamura, P. Latcharote, and S. Day, “An Analysis of Fatality Ratios and the Factors That Affected Human Fatalities in the 2011 Great East Japan Tsunami,” Frontiers in Built Environment, Earthquake Engineering, Mega Quakes: Cascading Earthquake Hazards and Compounding Risks, Vol.2, No.32, pp. 1-13, 2016.
-  A. R. Gusman, Y. Tanioka, H. Matsumoto, and S. Iwasaki, “Analysis of the Tsunami Generated by the Great 1977 Sumba Earthquake that Occurred in Indonesia,” Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Seismological Society of America, Vol.99, No.4, pp. 2169-2179, 2009.
-  K. Kato and Y. Tsuji, “Tsunami of the Sumba earthquake of August 19, 1977,” J. of Natural Disaster Science, Vol.17, No.2, pp. 87-100, 1995.
-  K. Monecke, W. Finger, D. Klarer, W. Kongko, B. G. McAdoo, A. L. Moore, and S. U. Sudrajat,“A 1,000-year sediment record of tsunami recurrence in northern Sumatra,” Nature, Vol.455, pp. 1232-1234, 2008.
-  K. Jankaew, B. F. Atwater, Y. Sawai, M. Choowong, T. Charoentitirat, M. E. Martin, and A. Prendergast, “Medieval forewarning of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami in Thailand,” Nature, Vol.455, pp. 1228-1231, 2008.
-  A. Suppasri, K. Goto, A. Muhari, P. Ranasinghe, M. Riyaz, M. Affan, E. Mas, M. Yasuda, and F. Imamura, “A decade after the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami: The progress in disaster preparedness and future challenges in Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Thailand and the Maldives,” Pure and Applied Geophysics, Vol.172, No.12, pp. 3313-3341, 2015.
-  A. Suppasri, P. Latcharote, J. D. Bricker, N. Leelawat, A. Hayashi, K. Yamashita, F. Makinoshima, V. Roeber, and F. Imamura, “Improvement of tsunami countermeasures based on lessons from the 2011 great east japan earthquake and tsunami – Situation after five years –,” Coastal Engineering J., Vol.58, No.4, p. 1640011, 2016.
-  S. Koshimura, T. Oie, H. Yanagisawa, and F. Imamura, “Developing fragility curves for tsunami damage estimation using numerical model and post-tsunami data from Banda Aceh, Indonesia,” Coastal Engineering J., Vol.51, No.3, pp. 243-273, 2009.
-  S. Koshimura, Y. Namegaya, and H. Yanagisawa, “Tsunami Fragility – A new measure to assess tsunami damage,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.4, pp. 479-488, 2009.
-  A. Ghobarah, M. Saatcioglu, and I. Nistor, “The impact of the 26 December 2004 earthquake and tsunami on structures and infrastructures,” Engineering Structures, Vol.26, pp. 312-326, 2006.
-  C. J. Ammon, H. Kanamori, T. Lay, and A. A. Velasco, “The 17 July 2006 Java tsunami earthquake,” Geophysical Research Letters, Vol.33, p. L24308, 2006.
-  K. Satake and Y. Tanioka, “Sources of Tsunami and Tsunamigenic Earthquakes in Subduction Zones,” Pure and Applied Geophysics, Vol.154, No.3-4, pp. 467-483, 1999.
-  S. Reese, W. J. Cousins, W. L. Power, N. G. Palmer, I. G. Tejakusuma, and S. Nugrahadi, “Tsunami vulnerability of buildings and people in South Java – field observations after the July 2006 Java tsunami,” Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, Vol.7, pp. 573-589, 2007.
-  A. Muhari, S. Diposaptono, and F. Imamura, “Toward an Integrated Tsunami Disaster Mitigation: Lessons Learned from Previous Tsunami Events in Indonesia,” J. of Natural Disaster Science, Vol.29, No.1, pp. 13-19, 2007.
-  K. Satake, Y. Nishimura, P. S. Putra, A. R. Gusman, H. Sunendar, Y. Fujii, Y. Tanikoka, H. Latief, and E. Yulianto, “Tsunami source of the 2010 Mentawai, Indonesia earthquake inferred from tsunami field survey and waveform modeling,” Pure and Applied Geophysics, Vol.170, pp. 1567-1582, 2013.
-  Syamsidik and D. C. Istiyanto, “Tsunami Mitigation Measures for Tsunami Prone Small Islands: Lessons Learned from the 2010 Tsunami around the Mentawai Islands of Indonesia,” J. of Earthquake and Tsunami, Vol.7, No.1, p. 1350002, 2013
-  S. Diposaptono, A. Muhari, F. Imamura, S. Koshimura, and H. Yanagisawa, “Impacts of the 2011 East Japan tsunami in the Papua region, Indonesia: field observation data and numerical analyses,” Geophysical J. Int., Vol.194, pp. 1625-1639, 2013.
-  A. Suppasri, N. Shuto, F. Imamura, S. Koshimura, E. Mas, and A. C. Yalciner, “Lessons learned from the 2011 Great East Japan tsunami: Performance of tsunami countermeasures, coastal buildings and tsunami evacuation in Japan,” Pure and Applied Geophysics, Vol.170, No.6-8, pp. 993-1018, 2013.
-  F. Imamura, “Dissemination of Information and Evacuation Procedures in the 2004-2007 Tsunamis, Including the 2004 Indian Ocean. J. of Earthquake and Tsunami, Vol.3, No.2, pp. 59-65, 2009.
-  A. Suppasri, N. Leelawat, P. Latcharote, V. Roeber, K. Yamashita, A. Hayashi, H. Ohira, K. Fukuki, A. Hisamatsu, D. Nguyen, and F. Imamura, “The 2016 Fukushima Earthquake and Tsunami: Preliminary research and new considerations for tsunami disaster risk reduction,” Int. J. of Disaster Risk Reduction, Vol.21, pp. 323-330, 2017.
-  World Population Data, http://www.worldpopdata.org/ [accessed March 22, 2018]
This article is published under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.