Observed Hospital Damages Following the 2014 Mae Lao (Northern Thailand) Earthquake: A Survey Report
Teraphan Ornthammarath*, and Titima Puavaranukroh**
*Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Mahidol University,
25/25 Puttamonthon Sai 4 Rd., Salaya, Nakhon Pathom 73170, Thailand
**Kasemrad Bangkae Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand
On 5 May 2014, a Mw 6.1 earthquake occurred near Mae Lao (north Thailand), which damaged and disrupted healthcare services in the epicentral region because of structural and nonstructural damages. After providing a general summary of the observed ground motion and overall damages, a short description of the local healthcare system is addressed. Specific descriptions of the observed structural and nonstructural damages are provided based on a series of field surveys conducted between one and nine months after the mainshock. Although the observed structural damages were minimal, sustained nonstructural damages decreased the functionality of healthcare services for several weeks. Until recently, building regulations in Thailand and many other countries have aimed to preserve the structural integrity of buildings, and few studies have considered the seismic resistance of nonstructural components, particularly at hospitals. In addition, emergency planning should set functionality goals and develop plans for reaching them. This should include determination of the performance level expected of hospital buildings, medical equipment, and utility services to guarantee hospitals’ functionality during major disasters.
-  P. Nutalaya, S. Sodsri, and E. P. Arnold, “SEASEE Series on Seismology, Vol II – Thailand,” Southeast Asia Association of Seismology and Earthquake Engineering and U.S. Geological Survey, 1985.
-  World Health Organization (WHO), “Health facility seismic vulnerability evaluation – a handbook –,” WHO Regional Office for Europe, 2006.
-  Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), “National Response Framework,” Department of Homeland Security, 2008, http://www.fema.gov/pdf/emergency/nrf/nrf-core.pdf [accessed July 10, 2018]
-  C. H. Schultz, K. L. Koenig, and R. J. Lewis, “Implications of hospital evacuation after the Northridge, California, earthquake,” New England J. of Medicine, Vol.348, pp. 1349-1355, 2003.
-  United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), “Crisis appeal earthquake in Bam, Iran,” 2004, http://www.unicef.org/emerg/files/Emergencies_Iran_Flash_Appeal_130104.pdf [accessed July 10, 2018]
-  Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC), “Humanitarian health cluster: Pakistan earthquake,” Consolidated Health Situation Bulletin #2, 2005.
-  H. J. Price, A. De Sortis, and M. Schotanus, “Performance of the San Salvatore Regional Hospital in the 2009 L’Aquila Earthquake,” Earthquake Spectra, Vol.28, pp. 239-256, 2012.
-  Post Disaster Needs Assessments (PDNA), “Guidance for health sector assessment to support the post disaster recovery process, version 2.2,” World Health Organization, Humanitarian Health Action, 2010.
-  J. K. McIntosh, C. Jacques, J. Mitrani-Reiser, T. D. Kirsch, S. Giovinazzi, and T. M. Wilson, “The impact of the 22 February 2011 earthquake on Christchurch Hospital,” Proc. of the New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering Annual Meeting, 2012.
-  T. Ornthammarath, P. Warnitchai, K. Worakanchana, S. Zaman, R. Sigbjörnsson, and C. G. Lai, “Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for Thailand,” Bull Earthquake Eng., Vol.9, No.2, pp. 367-394, 2011.
-  T. Ornthammarath and P. Warnitchai, “The 5 May 2014 MW 6.1 Mae Lao (Northern Thailand) earthquake: Interpretations of recorded ground motion and structural damage,” Earthquake Spectra, Vol.32, No.2, pp. 1209-1238, DOI: 10.1193/081814EQS129M, 2016.
-  Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), “FEMA E-74: Reducing the Risks of Nonstructural Earthquake Damage – A Practical Guide,” Federal Emergency Management Agency, Risk Management Series, 2011.
-  Federal Emergency Management Agency, “FEMA-396 Incremental Seismic Rehabilitation of Hospital Buildings,” 2003.
-  A. Masi, G. Santarsiero, M. R. Gallipoli, et al., “Performance of the health facilities during the 2012 Emilia (Italy) earthquake and analysis of the Mirandola hospital case study,” Bull Earthquake Eng., Vol.12, p. 2419, DOI:10.1007/s10518-013-9518-4, 2014.
-  Ohta et al., “Sustainable Training-Model Development Based on Analysis of Disaster Medicine Training,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.10, No.5, pp. 900-918, 2015.