Change in Disaster-Prevention Consciousness Brought by Serious Damage from a Large Scale Disaster: Studying the Kumamoto Earthquake in 2016
Miki Ozeki*,† and Kan Shimazaki**
*Tokyo International University
2509, Matoba, Kawagoe, Saitama, Japan
**National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention, Tsukuba, Japan
The aim of the current study was to test whether direct experience of a large-scale natural disaster enhanced disaster-prevention consciousness, using the disaster-prevention consciousness scale created by Shimazaki and Ozeki (2017). An online survey was conducted in February 2017 targeting those who lived in Kumamoto Prefecture, which was seriously damaged by the Kumamoto Earthquake. Participants were divided into two groups: a group of people who lived in 14 local towns where public employees of other local governments came to provide backup assistance after the Kumamoto Earthquake (heavily damaged group), and a group of people who did not live in these areas when the Kumamoto Earthquake occurred (damaged group). Results showed that interest in disasters, sense of danger in current disaster prevention, others orientation, and anxiety increased after large-scale natural disasters, irrespective of the extent of damage. Directly experiencing damage from the disaster enhanced imagination for damage situation.
-  Cabinet Office, TEAM Disaster Prevention Japan, 2017, https://bosaijapan.jp/ [accessed January 19, 2017]
-  M. Ozeki, K. Shimazaki, and T. Yi, “Exploring elements of Anti-disaster consciousness: Based on interviews with anti-disaster professionals,” J. of Disaster Research, Vol.12, No.3, pp. 631-638, 2017.
-  K. Shimazaki and M. Ozeki, “Development of disaster-prevention consciousness scale (1).” poster presentation in The 81st Annual Meeting of Japan Association of Psychology, p. 69, 2017.
-  S. Takako, “Some Factors Influencing Prosocial Behavior: Empathy, social skill and extraversion,” Japanese J. of Experimental Social Psychology, Vol.32, No1, pp. 71-84, 1992.
-  K. Kashiwagi, “Development of children’s self,” University of Tokyo Press, 1983.
-  P. H. Mussen and N. Eisenberg, “Roots of caring, sharing, and helping: The development of prosocial behavior of in children,” San Francisco: Freeman, 1977.
-  M. L. Hoffman, “Empathy and moral development: Implications for caring and justice,” Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
-  D. T. Regan and R. Fazio, “On the consistency between attitudes and behavior: Look to the method of attitude formation,” J. of Experimental Social Psychology, Vol.13, pp. 28-45, 1977.
-  S. Furuyama and H. Wada, “A study on the evaluation behaviors of local communities and the residents’ disaster prevention awareness in the mountainous affected areas of different degrees: In the case of communities of Oto-cho in Gojo City, a Kii Peninsula flooded area,” J. of the City Planning Institute of Japan, Vol.49, No.3, pp. 621-626, 2014. doi: http://doi.org/10.11361/journalcpij.49.621
-  U. N. Neirsser, E. Winograd, E. T. Bergman, C. A. Schreiber, S. E. Palmer, and M. S. Weldin, “Remembering the earthquake: Direct experience vs. hearing the news,” Memory, Vol.4, No.4, pp. 337-357, 1996.
-  Japan Meteorological Agency, “Information on the Kumamoto earthquake in 2016,” 2016, http://www.jma.go.jp/jma/menu/h28_kumamoto_jishin_menu.html [November 8, 2017]
-  Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications, “The report of the earthquake whose hypocenter is in Kumamoto (Vol.99) at 19o’clock in March 14th in 2017,” 2017, http://www.bousai.go.jp/updates/h280414jishin/ [accessed November 9, 2017]
-  Japan Meteorological Agency, “The number of landfalls of typhoons,” 2017, http://www.data.jma.go.jp/fcd/yoho/typhoon/statistics/ranking/landing.html [accessed August 3, 2017]
-  Government of Kumamoto Prefecture, “Estimated damage of tsunami in Kumamoto prefecture,” 2013, http://www.pref.kumamoto.jp/kiji_229.html [accessed August 3, 2017]
-  W. Madsen and C. O’ Mullan, “Perceptions of community resilience after natural disaster in a rural Australian town,” J. of Community Psychology, Vol.44, No.3, pp. 277-292, 2016, doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcop.21764 .
-  T. Postmes, R. Spears, M. Lee, and R. Novak, “Individuality and social influence in groups: inductive and deductive routes to group identity,” J. of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol.89, No.5, pp. 747-763, 2005, doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-35184.108.40.2067
-  J. Drury, R. Brown, R. González, and D. Miranda, “Emergent social identity and observing social support predict social support provided by survivors in a disaster: Solidarity in the 2010 Chile earthquake,” European J. of Social Psychology, Vol.46, No.2, pp. 209-223, 2016, doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.2146
-  Y. Hada, A. Sakai, H. Ichinose, and K. Ishida, “Assessment of a Practical Disaster Exercise for Students in Elementary and Junior High Schools : Results on Application of the Earthquake Early Warning,” J. of Social Safety Science, Vol.26, pp. 1-8, 2015.
-  Y. Arai, T. Motoyoshi, Y. Matsui, M. Saido, Y. Shimizu, I. Takenaka, M. Tanaka, Y. Fukuoka, H. Hori, and K. Mizuta, “Development of disaster-prevention consciousness scale,” poster presentation in the 47th Annual Meeting of Japan Association of Social Psychology, pp. 702-703, 2005.