Water Leakage Detection System for Underground Pipes by Using Wireless Sensors and Machine Learning
Shigeru Teruhi*, Yo Yamaguchi*, and Junichi Akahani**
*NTT Network Innovation Laboratories, NTT Corporation
Hikarinooka, Yokosuka 239-0847, Japan
**NTT Advanced Technology Corporation, Kawasaki, Japan
-  K. Akabane, N. Mochizuki, S. Teruhi, M. Kobayashi, S. Yoshino, M. Shimizu, and K. Uehara, “High-Capacity Wireless Access Networks Using 920 MHz Band for Wide-Area IoT/M2M Services,” IEICE Trans. on Comm., Vol.E99.B, No.9, pp. 1920-1929, 2016.
-  “Water Statistics,” No.97, Japan Water Works Association, 2014.
-  “Water Resources in Japan,” Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, 2014.
-  Y. Kuwata and T. Okamoto, “Analysis of the Impact of Water-Supply Outages Due to Multiple Factors Caused by the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake,” J. of Disaster Research, Vol.7, No.6, pp. 701-710, 2012.
-  K. Matsui, “Japan’s approach to water problems in the world,” Lawmaking and Research, No.332, House of Councillors, 2012.
-  http://www.jwrc-net.or.jp/hotnews/pdf/HotNews109.pdf [accessed Sep. 21, 2016]
-  K. Fukushima, Y. Murata, K. Izumi, Y. Ito, A. Yoshizawa, and T. Tanaka, “A Water Leak Detection Service Based on Sensors and ICT Solutions,” NEC Technical Journal, Vol.9, No.1, pp. 107-110, 2015.
-  Z. Sun and I. F. Akyildiz, “Magnetic Induction Communications for Wireless Underground Sensor Networks,” IEEE Trans. on Ant. and Prop., Vol.58, No.7, 2010.
-  H. Yoshioka, H. Shibayama, J. Iwatani, T. Ito, H. Tsuboi, A. Ando, and H. Nakamura, “Study on communication that uses RF-ID set in a manhole,” IEICE Society Conference 2009, B-5-94, 2009 (in Japanese).
-  T. Mizuno, H. Miyakawa, S. Meguro, and J. Akahani, “Study of water pipe leak detection using machine learning,” IEICE General Conference 2016, B-18-55, 2016 (in Japanese).
-  A. Ando, T. Ito, H. Yoshioka, H. Tsuboi, and H. Nakamura, “Effects of receiver antenna height and polarization on received signal levels at road level from transmitter antennas set in manhole,” IEEE AP-S, pp. 2399-2402, 2011.
-  H. Tsuboi, H. Yoshioka, A. Ando, and H. Nakamura, “Study of a radio system that can amass information about manholes from a moving vehicle,” IEICE General Conference 2012, B-5-39, 2012 (in Japanese).
-  http://www.arib.or.jp/english/html/overview/doc/1-STD-T108v1_0.pdf [accessed Sep. 21, 2016]
-  IEEE Std 802.15.4gTM-2012, Part15.4-Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (LR-WPANs), April 2012.
-  http://www.tepco.co.jp/smartmeter/index-j.html [accessed Sep. 21, 2016]
-  COST 231 Final Report, Chapter 4.6.2, Penetration loss at non line of sight conditions, 1996.
-  M. Hata, “Empirical formula for propagation loss in land mobile radio services,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Tech., Vol.VT-29, No.3, pp. 317-325, 1980.
-  http://www.silabs.com/support%20documents/technicaldocs/an647.pdf [accessed Sep. 21, 2016]
-  K. Tanaka, K. Hoshino, H. Maruyama, H. Imura, Y. Katahara, and T. Hamaya, “Study on an Antenna of Radio wave for Frequency and Time standard,” Report of the Industrial Research Institute of Niigata Prefecture, No.31, 2002.
-  Public Notice that sets Details set by safety standard Article 3 about Road Trucking Vehicle, (1002nd Public Notice of Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, July 7, 2003), 2003.
-  Y. Chiba, “Introductory of Acoustics,” http://abcpedia.acoustics.jp/acoustic_feature_2.pdf [accessed Sep. 21, 2016]
-  C. Kondo and A. Mita, “PCA Based Water Leakage Detection Method Using Complex Fourier Components,” J. of Environmental Engineering, Architectural Institute of Japan, Vol.74, No.642, pp. 965-972, 2009.
-  S. Koshimura, “Special Issue on Disaster and Big Data,” J. of Disaster Research, Vol.11, No.2, p. 163, 2016.
-  T. Kurita, “Introduction to Support Vector Machines,” National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, http://home.hiroshima-u.ac.jp/tkurita/lecture/svm.pdf [accessed Sep. 21, 2016]
-  https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/e1071/index.html [accessed Sep. 21, 2016]
This article is published under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 Internationa License.