Performance-Based Tsunami Engineering via a Web-Based GIS Data Explorer
Dylan Keon*,†, Cherri M. Pancake**, Ben Steinberg*, and Harry Yeh***
*Northwest Alliance for Computational Science and Engineering, Oregon State University
2007 Kelley Engineering Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA
**School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Oregon State University, USA
***School of Civil and Construction Engineering, Oregon State University, USA
In spite of advances in numerical modeling and computer power, coastal buildings and infrastructures are still designed and evaluated for tsunami hazards based on parametric criteria with engineering “conservatism,” largely because complex numerical simulations require time and resources in order to obtain adequate results with sufficient resolution. This is especially challenging when conducting multiple scenarios across a variety of probabilistic occurrences of tsunamis. Numerical computations that have high temporal and spatial resolution also yield extremely large datasets, which are necessary for quantifying uncertainties associated with tsunami hazard evaluation. Here, we introduce a new web-based tool, the Data Explorer, which facilitates the exploration and extraction of numerical tsunami simulation data. The underlying concepts are not new, but the Data Explorer is unique in its ability to retrieve time series data from massive output datasets in less than a second, the fact that it runs in a standard web browser, and its user-centric approach. To demonstrate the tool’s performance and utility, two examples of hypothetical cases are presented. Its usability, together with essentially instantaneous retrieval of data, makes simulation-based analysis and subsequent quantification of uncertainties accessible, enabling a path to future design decisions based on science, rather than relying solely on expert judgment.
-  H. Yeh, S. Sato, and Y. Tajima, “The 11 March 2011 East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami: Tsunami Effects on Coastal Infrastructure and Buildings,” Pure Appl. Geophys., Vol.170, pp. 1019-1031, 2013.
-  F. Kato, Y. Suwa, K. Watanabe, and S. Hatogai, “Damages to Shore Protection Facilities Induced by the Great East Japan Earthquake Tsunami,” J. of Disaster Research, Vol.8, No.4, pp. 612-625, 2013.
-  Building Research Institute, “Quick Report of the Field Survey and Research on “The 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake” (the Great East Japan Earthquake)” Technical Note, National Institute fro Land and Infrastructure Management, No.636, 2011.
-  K. Konagai, T. Kiyota, and H. Kyokawa, “Piles for RC/Steel-frame buildings pulled up by tsunami at Onagawa Town, in the March 11th 2011 East Japan Earthquake,” Quick Report of Recon. No.2 Konagai/Kiyota Laboratories, IIS, University of Tokyo, Vol.9, 2011.
-  K. Hayashi, S. Tamura, M. Nakashima, Y. L. Chung, and K. Hoki, “Evaluation of Tsunami Load and Building Damage Mechanism Observation in the 2011 off Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake,” 15th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Paper ID 1807, Sep., 2012.
-  American Nuclear Society, “Fukushima Daiichi: ANS Committee Report,” 2012, available online at http://fukushima.ans.org/report/cleanup [accessed Dec. 15 2015]
-  H. Yeh, A. R. Barbosa, H. Ko, and J. G. Cawley, “Tsunami loadings on structures: Review and analysis,” Proceedings of 34th Conference on Coastal Engineering, Seoul, Korea, 2014.
-  D. Keon, C. M. Pancake, and H. Yeh, “Protecting Our Shorelines: Modeling the Effects of Tsunamis and Storm Waves,” Computer 11, pp. 23-32, 2015.
-  H. Yeh, “Tsunami Hazard and Casualty Estimation Model,” Tenth US National Conf. on Earthquake Engineering, 2014.
-  N. Shuto N and K. Fujima, “A Short History of Tsunami Research and Countermeasures in Japan,” Proc. of the Japan Academy Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences, Vol.85, No.8, pp. 267-275, 2009.
-  L. G. Geist and T. Parsons, “Probabilistic Analysis of Tsunami Hazards,” Natural Hazards, Vol.37, pp. 277-314, 2006.
-  H. K. Thio, P. Somerville, and G. Ichinose, “Probabilistic Analysis of Strong Ground Motion and Tsunami Hazards in Southeast Asia,” J. of Earthquake and Tsunami, Vol.1, No.2, pp. 119-137, 2007.
-  F. I. González, E. L. Geist, B. E. Jaffe, U. Kanoglu, H. O. Mofjeld, C. E. Synolakis, V. V. Titov, D. Arcas, D. Bellomo, D. Carlton, T. Horning, J. Johnson, J. Newman, T. Parsons, R. Peters, C. Peterson, G. Priest, A Venturato, J. Weber, F. Wong, and A. Yalciner, “Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment at Seaside, Oregon, for Near- and Far-field Seismic Sources,” J. of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 114-C11, 2009.
-  F. I. González, R. J. LeVeque, and L. M. Adams, “Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment (PTHA) for Crescent City, CA. Final Report for Phase I,” University of Washington Department of Applied Mathmatics, 2013.
-  E. L. Geist and P. J. Lynett, “Source Processes for the Probabilistic Assessment of Tsunami Hazards,” Oceanography, Vol.27, No.2, pp. 86-93, 2014.
-  C. A. Cornell, “Engineering Seismic Risk Analysis.” Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Vol.58, pp. 1583-1606, 1968.
-  NRC (National Research Council), “Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis,” National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1988.
-  L. M. Adams, R. J. LeVeque, and F. I. González, “The Pattern Method for Incorporating Tidal Uncertainty into Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment (PTHA),” Natural Hazards, Vol.76, No.1, pp. 19-39, 2015.
-  FEMA P646, “Guidelines for Design of Structures for Vertical Evacuation from Tsunamis,” Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, D.C., 2008, available online at https://www.fema.gov/media-library/assets/documents/14708 [accessed Dec. 15 2015]
-  S. Koshimura, Y. Namegaya, and H. Yanagisawa, “Tsunami Fragility: A New Measure to Identify Tsunami Damage,” J. of Disaster Research, Vol.4, No.6, pp. 479-488, 2009.
-  C. A. Kircher and J. Bouabid, “New Building Damage and Loss Functions for Tsunami,” Tenth U.S. National Conference on Earthquake Engineering, 2014, available online at https://nees.org/resources/11302/download/10NCEE-000322.pdf [accessed Dec. 15 2015]
-  American Society of Civil Engineers ASCE/SEI 7-16, Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures, 2016, available online at http://standards.plantops.umich.edu/ascesei-7-16-design-loads-for-buildings [accessed Apr. 29, 2016]
-  H. Yeh, A. Barbosa, H. Ko, and J. Cawley, “Tsunami Loadings on Structures: Review and Analysis,” Proc. of 34th Conf. of Coastal Engineering, Seoul, South Korea, 2015.
-  GDAL open source library, available online at http://www.gdal.org [accessed Dec. 27 2015]
-  MapServer open source web-mapping development environment, available online at http://www.mapserver.org [accessed Dec. 17, 2015]
-  S. Tonkin, H. Yeh, F. Kato, and S. Sato, “Tsunami scour around a cylinder,” J. of Fluid Mechanics, Vol.496, pp. 165-192, 2003.
-  H. Yeh and H. B. Mason, “Sediment response to tsunami loading: Mechanisms and estimates,” Géotechnique, Vol.64 No.2, pp. 131-143, 2014.
This article is published under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.