Proposal for Development Cooperation to Enhance the Capacity on Disaster Emergency Response in Developing Countries : A Case Study of Curriculum Development in the People’s Republic of China
Toshiyuki Shimano*1, Reo Kimura*2, Haruo Hayashi*3, Noriaki Nagatomo*1, and Yukihisa Sakurada*4
*1Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA)
Nibancho Center Building, 5-25, Niban-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, Japan
*2School of Human Science and Environment, University of Hyogo, Hyogo, Japan
*3National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention, Ibaraki, Japan
*4Disaster Prevention Research Institute, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan
Although the importance of Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) has been recognized internationally as exemplified by the UN World Conference on DRR, funding for emergency relief teams and relief supplies accounts for approximately 66% of the total amount paid for emergency management as a part of international cooperation. Stable economic development requires improvement of DRR and also the mitigation of damage. This paper: 1. Identifies the challenges for enhancing the capacity for emergency management in China; and 2. Examines methods of development cooperation that could help to resolve the above-mentioned challenges. The challenges in China have been brought to light through the Project “Japan-China Cooperation Plan of Earthquake First-Aid Capacity Training” to enhance capacity for earthquake emergency management under JICA’s Technical Cooperation. The timeline analysis for emergency management and after action review were used to assess the China’s emergency management framework and systems. The system and framework of China were also examined by comparing international systems and frameworks such as ISO22320, Japanese DRR system and the United States system. Based on this, curriculum and texts were developed for the National Earthquake Response Support Service (NERSS) to train the personnel engages in earthquake risk management in China. Guidance curricula were developed for the beginners and the intermediate user, which effectiveness was verified by instructional design.
-  S. Chen et al., “Natural Disasters in China:1900-2011,” Nat Hazard, Vol.69, pp. 1597-1605, 2013.
-  T. Deal et al., “Beyond Initial Response: Using the National Incident Management System’s Incident Command System,” Second Edition, AuthorHouse, 2010.
-  Department of Army, “A Leader’s Guide to After-Action Reviews: Training Circular 25-20,” Washington, 1993, http://www. acq.osd.mil/dprap/ccap/cc/jcchb/Files/Topical/Aftertextunderscore Actiontextunderscore Report /resources/tc25-20.pdf [accessed May 1, 2015]
-  X. Du et al., “Comparative Analysis of Earthquake Emergency Responses in China and Japan based on Timeline: 311 Earthquake vs 512 Earthquake,” Journal of Disaster Research, Vol.10, No.2, pp. 276-287, 2015.
-  R. M. Gagne et al., “Principles of Instructional Design,” Fifth Edition, Wadsworth Pub Co., 2004.
-  D. A. Garvin, “Learning in Action – A Guide to Putting the Learning Organization to Work –,” Boston, Harvard Business School Press, pp. 106-116, 2000.
-  G. Haddow et al., “Introduction to Emergency Management: Homeland Security Series,” Third Edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, 2007.
-  H. Hayashi et al., “Introduction to Organizational Emergency Management: How to cope with risks,” A Series of Kyoto University Famous Lectures, Maruzen, 2008 (in Japanese).
-  H. Hayashi, “Interpreting International Emergency Management: A Manual on ISO22320:2011 (JISQ22320:2013) Social Security – Emergency Management – Requirements for Incident Response,” Japan Standard Association, 2014 (in Japanese).
-  M. Inoguchi et al., “Evaluating Information Management Process at Emergency Operation Center in terms of Incident Command System – A Case Study of Ojiya City at the 2004 Niigata-ken Chuetsu Earthquake –,” Journal of Social Safety Science, No.7, pp. 41-52, 2005 (in Japanese).
-  JICA, “Sectorial Assistance Policy on Disaster Management,” Japan International Cooperation Agency, 2006 (in Japanese).
-  JICA, “Capacity Assessment Handbook: A Project Management Method Enables Capacity Development,” Japan International Cooperation Agency, 2008 (in Japanese).
-  JICA, “Detailed Planning Survey Report on Japan-China Cooperation Plan of Earthquake First-Aid Capacity Training Project,” Japan International Cooperation Agency, 2012 (in Japanese).
-  JICA, “Summery Sheet of Terminal Evaluation Survey on Japan-China Cooperation Plan of Earthquake First-Aid Capacity Training Project,” 2012 (in Japanese), http://www2.jica.go.jp/ja/evaluation /pdf/2012textunderscore 0613099textunderscore 3textunderscore s.pdf [accessed August 26, 2015]
-  Y. Kato, “A Study on People’s Republic of China’s Emergency Management through Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) Outbreak,” Social Design Studies Society, No.7, pp. 41-52, Rikkyo Graduate School of Social Design Studies, 2008 (in Japanese).
-  J. Kellet and A. Caravani, “Financing Disaster Reduction: A 20 year story of international aid,” Overseas Development Institute and the Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery at the World Bank, 2013.
-  R. Kimura et al., “Method of Designing Training Programs for Disaster Responders Based on Instructional Design (ID) Theory in the Case of Life Reconstruction Support for Disaster Victims of Tokyo Metropolitan Government,” Journal of Social Safety Science, No.18, pp. 433-442, 2012 (in Japanese).
-  Kobe City, “A Report on Summery and Review on Rehabilitation and Reconstruction on the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake in Kobe,” Kobe City, 2000 (in Japanese).
-  J. Lai et al., “Development of NERSS Training Program for Earthquake Emergency Response Capacity Building of Local Government,” Journal of Disaster Research, Vol.10, No.2, pp. 263-269, 2015.
-  T. D. Liu and N. Washio, “Research on Credibility of Government of People’s Republic of China in Emergency Management,” Research on Commerce and Economics in Chu-ou Gakuin University, Vol.27, No.2, pp. 53-59, Chu-ou Gakuin University, 2013 (in Japanese).
-  Y. Lu and J. Xu, “The Progress of Emergency Response and Rescue in China: A Comparative Analysis of Wenchuan and Lushan Earthquake,” Nat Hazards, Vol.74, pp. 421-444, 2014.
-  E. Miyao, “Response to Major Natural Disasters in China,” Legislation in Abroad, Vol.251, pp. 214-238, National Diet Library, 2012 (in Japanese).
-  N. Nagatomo, E. Otsuki, and J. Hirano, “Economic Analysis of Investment in DRR Measures,” Disaster Risk Reduction for Economic Growth and Livelihood: Investing in Resilience and Development, pp. 83-110, Oxon and New York: Routledge, 2015.
-  Niigata Prefectural Disaster Risk Management Conference, “Prefectural Disaster Management Plan on Earthquake,” Niigata Prefecture, 2007 (in Japanese).
-  Tokyo Marine & Nichido Risk Consulting Co., Ltd., “Introduction of Timeline (pre-established emergency management plan) to Disaster Management,” Front Line of Risk Management, No.24, 2014 (in Japanese), http://www.tokiorisk.co.jp /risktextunderscore info/uptextunderscore file/201408181.pdf [accessed November 11, 2015]
-  M. Zhang and L. She, “Incident Command System in China: Development and Dilemmas Evidence from Comparison of Two Case,” Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, Vol.22, No.1, pp. 52-57, 2014.
-  H. Zhang, “What has China Learnt from Disasters? Evolution of the Emergency Management System after SARS, Southern Snow and Wenchuan Earthquake,” Journal of Comparative Policy Analysis, Research and Practice, Vol.14, No.3, pp. 234-244, 2012.
-  B. Zhou, “Development of Web-Based Tabletop Emergency Earthquake Exercise System,” Journal of Disaster Research, Vol.10, No.2, pp. 217-224, 2015.
This article is published under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.