single-dr.php

JDR Vol.8 No.6 pp. 1042-1051
(2013)
doi: 10.20965/jdr.2013.p1042

Paper:

Structural Damage Under Multiple Hazards in Coastal Environments

Megan C. McCullough*, Ahsan Kareem*, Aaron S. Donahue**,
and Joannes J. Westerink**

*NatHaz Modeling Laboratory, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46514, USA

**Computational Hydraulics Laboratory, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46514, USA

Received:
July 2, 2013
Accepted:
October 28, 2013
Published:
December 1, 2013
Keywords:
hurricanes, wind, storm surge, waves, multihazard engineering, performance-based design
Abstract

Coastal structures are susceptible to a variety of natural hazards, such as wind, storm surge, waves, earthquakes, and tsunamis. These hazards must be fully studied and well understood in order to effectively and safely design and construct hazard-resilient structures. Knowledge of the damage mechanisms associated with coastal hazards helps reveal the anatomy of damage to constructed facilities during an event, which exposes vulnerabilities in current design practices. This paper focuses on damage to residential structures caused by hurricane winds, storm surge, and waves. After the different loading mechanisms associated with hurricanes are discussed, two case studies are introduced that examine structural damage during Hurricane Katrina (2005). On-site postdisaster field surveillance is complemented by the analysis of aerial photographs, satellite images, and data from wind and storm surge models in order to determine the structural damage timeline. The case studies demonstrate the importance of considering multiple hazards when designing and constructing coastal structures. A design and analysis framework that combines multi-hazard engineering strategies with performance-based design procedures is then introduced. The new approach seeks to significantly improve structural reliability in the most efficient and effective manner.

Cite this article as:
Megan C. McCullough, Ahsan Kareem, Aaron S. Donahue, and
and Joannes J. Westerink, “Structural Damage Under Multiple Hazards in Coastal Environments,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.8, No.6, pp. 1042-1051, 2013.
Data files:
References
  1. [1] B. R. Ellingwood, D. V. Rosowsky, Y. Li, and J. H. Kim, “Fragility Assessment of Light-Frame Wood Construction Subjected to Wind and Earthquake Hazards,” Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol.130, pp. 1921-1930, 2004.
  2. [2] Y. Li and B. R. Ellingwood, “Framework for multihazard risk assessment and mitigation for wood-frame residential construction,” Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol.135, pp. 159-168, 2009.
  3. [3] G. Augusti and M. Ciampoli, “Performance-Based Design in Risk Assessment and Reduction,” Probabilistic Engineering Mechanics, Vol.23, pp. 496-508, 2008.
  4. [4] B. R. Ellingwood, “Structural reliability and performance-based engineering,” Structures and Buildings, Vol.161, pp. 199-207, 2008.
  5. [5] FEMA, “NEHRP Guidelines for the Seismic Rehabilitation of Buildings,” Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, D.C., 1997.
  6. [6] FEMA, “NEHRP Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulations for New Buildings and Other Structures,” Federal Emergency Management Agency Washington, D.C., 2000.
  7. [7] R. O. Hamburger and A. S. Whittaker, “Considerations in Performance-Based Blast Resistant Design of Steel Structures,” AISC-SINY Symposium on Resisting Blast and Progressive Collapse, New York, NY, 2003.
  8. [8] A. Kareem, “Structural Performance andWind Speed-Damage Correlation in Hurricane Alicia,” Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE 111, pp. 2596-2610, 1985.
  9. [9] A. Kareem, “Performance of Cladding in Hurricane Alicia,” Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE 112, pp. 2679-2693, 1986.
  10. [10] K. Mehta, J. Minor, and T. Reinhold, “Wind Speed-Damage Correlation in Hurricane Frederic,” Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE 109, pp. 37-49, 1983.
  11. [11] N. Stubbs, “Estimation of Building Damage as a Result of Hurricanees in the Caribbean (A Primer),” Report to Organization of American States and USAID, Texas A&M University, 1996.
  12. [12] K. Gurley and R. Dixon, “Post 2004 Hurricanes Field Survey – an Evaluation of the Relative Performance of the Standard Building Code and the Florida Building Code,” Structural Research Communication No. 53102-2 Final report to Florida Building Commission, 2006.
  13. [13] Y. Li, and B. R. Ellingwood, “Hurricane damage to residential construction in the US: Importance of uncertainty modeling in risk assessment,” Engineering Structures, Vol.28, pp. 1009-1018, 2006.
  14. [14] E. S. Chan, H. F. Cheong, and K. Y. H. Gin, “Breaking-Wave Loads on Vertical Walls Suspended Above Mean Sea Level,” Journal of Waterway, Port, Coastal and Ocean Engineering, ASCE 121, pp. 195-202, 1995.
  15. [15] E. S. Chan, and W. K. Melville, “Deep-Water Plunging Wave Pressures on a Vertical Plane Wall,” Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences, Vol.417, pp. 95-131, 1988.
  16. [16] T. Tomiczek, A. B. Kennedy, and S. P. Rogers, “Collapse limit state fragilities of wood-framed residences from storm surge and waves during Hurricane Ike,” Journal of Waterway, Port, Coastal and Ocean Engineering, ASCE, 2013 (in press).
  17. [17] A. Kennedy, S. Rogers, A. Sallenger, and U. Gravois, “Building destruction from waves and surge on the Bolivar peninsula during hurricane Ike,” Journal of Waterway, Port, Coastal, and Ocean Engineering, doi:10.1061/(ASCE)WW.1943-5460.0000061, 2010.
  18. [18] J. A. Womble, D. A. Smith, and B. J. Adams, “Use of emerging remote-sensing technologies to determine neighborhood wind/water damage patterns,” in: D. Anderson, C. Ventura, D. Harvey, and M. Hoit (Ed.), ASCE/SEI Structures Congress 2008, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, 2008.
  19. [19] D. A. Smith, J. A. Womble, and F. T. Lombardo, “Constructing probable wind and water damage sequence from timelines – the technical perspective,” in: D. Anderson, C. Ventura, D. Harvey, and M. Hoit (Ed.), ASCE/SEI Structures Congress 2008, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, 2008.
  20. [20] S. D. Amoroso, and R. J. Coco Jr., “Effective Forensic Engineering Investigations of Hurricane “Wind vs. Water” Disputes: Techniques and Tools,” in: D. Anderson, C. Ventura, D. Harvey, and M. Hoit (Ed.), ASCE/SEI Structures Congress 2008, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, 2008.
  21. [21] ASCE, “Minimum design loads for buildings and other structures,” ASCE 7-10, American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA, 2010.
  22. [22] F. J. Masters, P. J. Vickery, P. Bacon, and E. N. Rappaport, “Toward objective, standardized intensity estimates from surface wind speed observations,” American Meteorological Society, Vol.91, pp. 1665-1681, 2010.
  23. [23] D. K. Kwon and A. Kareem, “Comparative study of major international wind codes and standards for wind effects on tall buildings,” Engineering Structures, Vol.51, pp. 23-35, 2013.
  24. [24] I. M. Giammanco, J. L. Schroeder, and B. D. Hirth, “Hurricane Katrina Deployment Summary: Texas Tech University Hurricane Research Team,” Wind Science and Engineering Research Center, Lubbock, Texas, 2006.
  25. [25] R. A. Luettich, and J. J. Westerink, “Formulation and Numerical Implementation of the 2D/3D ADCIRC Finite Element Model Version 44.xx,” 2004,
    http://adcirc.org/adcirc theory 2004 12 08.pdf [accessed May 5, 2013].
  26. [26] N. Booij, R. C. Ris, and L. H. Holthuijsen, “A third-generation wave model for coastal regions. I – Model description and validation,” Journal of Geophysical Research 104.C4, pp. 7649-7666, 1999.
  27. [27] R. C. Ris, L. H. Holthuijsen, and N. Booij, “A third-generationwave model for coastal regions: 2. verification,” Journal of Geophysical Research 104.C4, pp. 7667-7681, 1999.
  28. [28] M. Ziljema, “Computation of wind-wave spectra in coastal waters with SWAN on unstructured Grids,” Coastal Engineering, Vol.57, pp. 267-277, 2010.
  29. [29] J. C. Dietrich, S. Tanaka, J. J. Westerink, C. Dawson, R. A. Luettich, M. Zijlema, L. H. Holthuijsen, J. M. Smith, L. G. Westerink, and H. J. Westerink, “Performance of the Unstructured-Mesh, SWAN+ADCIRC Model in Computing Hurricane Waves and Surge,” Journal of Scientific Computing, Vol.52, pp. 468-497, 2012.
  30. [30] J. C. Dietrich, S. Bunya, J. J.Westerink, B. A. Ebersole, J.M. Smith, J. H. Atkinson, R. Jensen, D. T. Resio, R. A. Luettich, C. Dawson, V. J. Cardone, A. T. Cox, M. D. Powell, H. J. Westerink, and H. J. Roberts, “A high resolution coupled riverine flow, tide, wind, wind wave, and storm surge model for southern Louisiana and Mississippi. Part II: Synoptic description and analyses of hurricanes Katrina and Rita,” Monthly Weather Review, Vol.138, pp. 378-404, 2010.
  31. [31] C. Kafali, “System performance under multihazard environment,” Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, 2008.
  32. [32] M. McCullough and A. Kareem, “Performance-based engineering in multi-hazard coastal environments,” 13th International Conference on Wind Engineering (ICWE), Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2011.
  33. [33] M. Tang, E. Castro, F. Pedroni, A. Brzozowski, and M. Ettouney, “Performance-Based Design with Application to Seismic Hazard,” Structure Magazine, 2008.
  34. [34] M. Shinozuka, M. Q. Feng, J. Lee, and T. Naganuma, “Statistical Analysis of Fragility Curves,” Journal of Engineering Mechanics, ASCE 126, pp. 1224-1231, 2000.
  35. [35] Y. -K. Wen, and B. R. Ellingwood, “The Role of Fragility Assessment in Consequence-Based Engineering,” Earthquake Spectra, Vol.21, pp. 861-877, 2005.
  36. [36] M. McCullough and A. Kareem, “Global warming and hurricane intensity and frequency: The debate continues,” 12th International Conference on Wind Engineering, Cairns, Australia, 2007.

*This site is desgined based on HTML5 and CSS3 for modern browsers, e.g. Chrome, Firefox, Safari, Edge, Opera.

Last updated on Apr. 13, 2021