Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza
College of Life and Health Sciences, Chubu University, 1200 Matsumoto-cho, Kasugai-shi, Aichi, 487-8501, Japan
The highly pathogenic avian influenza, H5N1 subtype, has been transmitted to humans in 15 countries in the world, with a significantly high fatality rate. The transmission to humans has been expanded. Since the virus was transmitted to humans for the first time in Hong Kong in 1997, the transmission of the virus from human to human has been limited. One of the reasons of the limitation can be found in the fact that the sialoglycoconjugates receptor-binding specificity of H5N1 virus is avian-type, and a mutation of the virus for acquiring receptor-binding specificity exclusively to humans has not occurred. However, it is concerned that if such a mutation of the virus occurred, a pandemic of highly pathogenic avian influenza would break out with a scale far exceeding that of the disastrous Spanish influenza in the past. This paper deals with the present condition of the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus, the mechanism of the virus to acquire the propensity of transmissibility to humans, and the measures against such a mutation.
-  “Fields Virology,” 5th edition, Vols.1&2, D. M. Knipe (Ed.), P. M. Howley; Wolters Kluwer Health / Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2007.
-  Cumulative Number of Confirmed Human Cases of Avian Influenza A/(H5N1) Reported to WHO,
-  Yasuo Suzuki, “Sialobiology of influenza – Molecular Mechanism of Host Range Variation of Influenza Viruses – (Review),” Biological Pharmaceutical Bulletin, Vol.28, No.3, pp. 399-408, 2005.
-  K. Subbarao, A. Klimov, J. Katz, H. Regenery, W. Lim, H. Hall, M. Perdue, D. Swayne, C. Bender, J. Huang, M. Hemphill, T. Rowe, M. Shaw, X. Xu, K. Fukuda, “Cox N: Characterization of an avian influenza A (H5N1) virus isolated from a child with a fatal respiratory illness,” Science, Vol.279, pp. 393-396, 1998.
-  H. Chen, G. J. D. Smith, S. Y. Zhang, K. Qin, J. Wang, K. S. Li, R. G. Webster, J. S. M. Peiris, Y. Guan, “Avian flu: H5N1 virus outbreak in migratory waterfowl,” Nature, Vol.436, pp. 191-192, 2007.
-  Yasuo Suzuki, “The Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 – Initial Molecular Signals for Next influenza Pandemic –,” Chang Gung Med. J., Vol.32, pp. 258-263, 2009.
-  Yasuo Suzuki, “The highly pathogenic avian flu viruses and the molecular mechanism of the transmission of the viruses into humans. Diseases associated with carbohydrates/glycoconjugates,” Comprehensive Glycoscience from Chemistry to Systems Biology, Glycoconjugates and viral infections, Elsevier Publishing book, Nov. issue, pp. 465-471, 2007.
-  Kyoko Shinya, Masato Hatta, Shinya Yamada, Ayato Takada, Shinji Watanabe, Peter Halfman, Taisuke Horimoto, Gabriele Neumann, Wilina Lim, Yi Guan, Malik Peiris, Makoto Kiso, Takashi Suzuki, Yasuo Suzuki, and Yoshihiro Kawaoka, “Characterization of a Human H5N1 Influenza A Virus Isolated in 2003,” J. Virol., Vol.79, pp. 9926-9932, 2005.
-  Prasert Auewarakul, Ornpreya Suptawiwat, Alita Kongchanagul, Chak Sangma, Yasuo Suzuki, Kumnuan Ungchusak, Suda Louisirirotchanakul, Hatairat Lerdsamran, Phisanu Pooruk, Arunee Thitithanyanont, Chakrarat Pittayawonganon, Chao-Tan Guo, Hiroaki Hiramatsu, Wipawee Jampangern, Supamit Chunsutthiwat, and Pilaipan Puthavathana, “An avian influenza H5N1 virus that binds to a human-type receptor,” J. Virol., Vol.81, pp. 9950-9955, 2007.
-  Shinya Yamada, Yasuo Suzuki, Takashi Suzuki, Mai Q Le, Chairul A. Nidom, Yuko Tagawa-Sakai, Yukiko Muramoto, Mutsumi Ito, Maki Kiso, Taisuke Horimoto, Kyoko Shinya, Toshihiko Sawada, Makoto Kiso, Yipu Lin, Alan Hay, Lesley F. Haire, David J. Stevens, Rupert J. Russel, Steven J. Gambin, John J. Skehel, and Yoshihiro Kawaoka, “Hemagglutinin mutations responsible for the binding of H5N1 influenza A viruses to human-type receptors,” Nature, Vol.444, pp. 378-382, 2006.
-  Aarthi Chandrasekaran, Aravind Srinivasan, Rahul Raman, Karthik Viswanathan, S. Raguram, Terrence M. Tumpey, V. Sasisekharan, and Ram Sasisekharan, “Glycan topology determines human adaptation of avian H5N1 virus hemagglutinin,” Nat. Biotechnol., Vol.26, pp. 107-113, 2008.
-  K. Shinya, M. Ebina, S. Yamada, M. Ono, N. Kasai, and Y. Kawaoka, “Avian flu: influenza virus receptors in the human airway,” Nature, Vol.440, No.7083, pp. 435-436, 2006.
-  J. M. Nicholls, M. C. Chan, W. Y. Chan, H. K.Wong, C. Y. Cheung, D. L. Kwong, M. P. Wong, W. H. Chui, L. L. Poon, S. W. Tsao et al., “Tropism of avian influenza A (H5N1) in the upper and lower respiratory tract,” Nat. Med., Vol.13, No.2, pp. 147-149, 2007.
-  Darwin Kobasa, Ayato Takada, Kyoko Shinya, Peter Halfman, Masato Hatta, Steven Theriault, Hiroshi Suzuki, Hidekazu Nishimura, Keiko Mitamura, Norio Sugaya, Taichi Usui, Takeomi Murata, Takashi Suzuki, Yasuo Suzuki, Heinz Feldman, and Yoshihiro Kawaoka, “Enhanced pathogenicity of influenza A viruses possessing the haemagglutinin of the 1918 pandemic,” Nature, Vol.431, pp. 703-707, 2004.
-  Laurel Glaser, James Stevens, Dmitriy Zamarin, Ian A. Wilson, Adolfo García-Sastre, Terrence M. Tumpey, Christopher F. Basler, Jeffery K. Taubenberger, and Peter Palese, “A Single amino acid substitution in 1918 Influenza virus hemagglutinin changes receptor binding specificity,” J. Virol. Vol.79, pp. 11533-11536, 2005.
-  Terrence M. Tumpey, Taronna R. Maines, Neal Van Hoeven, Laurel Glaser, Alicia Solórzano, Claudia Pappas, Nancy J. Cox, David E. Swayne, Peter Palese, Jacqueline M. Katz, Adolfo García-Sastre, Science, Vol.315, No.2, pp. 655-659, 2007.
-  Gavin J. D. Smith, Dhanasekaran Vijaykrishna, Justin Bahl, Samantha J. Lycett, MichaelWorobey, Oliver G. Pybus, Siu Kit Ma, Chung Lam Cheung, Jayna Raghwani, Samir Bhatt, J. S. Malik Peiris, Yi Guan, and Andrew Rambaut, “Origins and evolutionary genomics of the 2009 swine-origin H1N1 influenza A epidemic,” Nature, Vol.459, No.7250, pp. 1122-1125, 2009.
-  R. J. Garten, C. T. Davis, C. A. Russell, B. Shu, S. Lindstrom, A. Balish, W. M. Sessions, X. Xu, E. Skepner, V. Deyde, M. Okomo-Adhiambo, L. Gubareva, J. Barnes, C. B. Smith, S. L. Emery, M. J. Hillman, P. Rivailler, J. Smagala, M. de Graaf, D. F. Burke, R. A. Fouchier, C. Pappas, C. M. Alpuche-Aranda, H. López-Gatell, H. Olivera, I. López, C. A. Myers, D. Faix, P. J. Blair, C. Yu, K. M. Keene, P. D. Dotson Jr., D. Boxrud, A. R. Sambol, S. H. Abid, K. St George, T. Bannerman, A. L. Moore, D. J. Stringer, P. Blevins, G. J. Demmler-Harrison, M. Ginsberg, P. Kriner, S. Waterman, S. Smole, H. F. Guevara, E. A. Belongia, P. A. Clark, S. T. Beatrice, R. Donis, J. Katz, L. Finelli, C. B. Bridges, M. Shaw, D. B. Jernigan, T. M. Uyeki, D. J. Smith, A. I. Klimov, and N. J. Cox, “Antigenic and genetic characteristics of swine-origin A(H1N1) influenza viruses circulating in humans,” Science Vol.325, pp. 197-201, 2009.
-  Hua Yang, Paul Carney, and James Stevens, Structure and Receptor binding properties of a pandemic H1N1 virus hemagglutinin. PLos Currents influenza,
-  J. Stevens, O. Blixt, L. M. Chen, R. O. Donis, J. C. Paulson, and I. A. Wilson, “Recent avian H5N1 viruses exhibit increased propensity for acquiring human receptor specificity,” J Mol Biol., Vol.381, No.5, pp.1382-94, 2008.
-  Chairul A. Nidom, Ryo Takano, Shinya Yamada, Yuko Sakai-Tagawa, Syafril Daulay, Didi Aswadi, Takashi Suzuki, Yasuo Suzuki, Kiyoko Iwatsuki-Horimoto, Kyoko Shinya, Yukiko Muramoto, and Yoshihiro Kawaoka, “Influenza A(H5N1) viruses from pigs,” Indonesia. Emerg. Infect. Dis., 2010 Oct; [Epub ahead of print] DOI: 10.3201/eid1610.100508
-  Nongluk Sriwilaijaroen, Sachiko Kondo, Hirokazu Yagi, Nobuhiro Takemae, Takehiko Saito, Hiroaki Hiramatsu, Koichi Kato, and Yasuo Suzuki, “N-glycans from porcine trachea and lung: Predominant NeuAcα2-6Gal could be a selective pressure for influenza variants in favor of human-type receptor,” PLoS ONE, Vol.6, issue 2, e-16302, 2011.
-  Rui Xu, Ryan McBride, James C. Paulson, Christopher F. Basler, and Ian A. Wilson Structure, “Receptor Binding, and Antigenicity of Influenza Virus Hemagglutinins from the 1957 H2N2 Pandemic,” J. Virol. Vol.84, No.2, pp. 1715-1721, 2010.
-  Jessica A. Belser, Ola Blixt, Li-Mei Chen, Claudia Pappas, Taronna R. Maines, Neal Van Hoeven, Ruben Donis, Julia Busch, Ryan McBride, James C. Paulson, Jacqueline M. Katz, and Terrence M. Tumpey, “Contemporary North American influenza H7 viruses possess human receptor specificity: Implications for virus transmissibility,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, Vol.105, pp. 7558-7563, 2008.
-  Q. Mai Le, Maki Kiso, Kazuhiko Someya, Yuko T. Sakai, T. Hien Nguyen, Khan H. L. Nguyen, N. Dinh Pham, Ha H. Ngyen, Shinya Yamada, Yukiko Muramoto, Taisuke Horimoto, Ayato-Takada, Hideo Goto, Takashi Suzuki, Yasuo Suzuki, and Yoshihiro Kawaoka, “Isolation of drug-resistant H5N1 virus,” Nature Vol.437, p. 1108, 2005.
This article is published under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.