Mediating Role of Self-Esteem in Activity Participants’ Passion for Exercise and Psychological Well-Being by Jogging in Fu Jen Catholic University
Ming-Yun Kuo*, Tsung-Kuo Tien-Liu*, and Wen-Lin Chang**,
*Office of Physical Education, Fu Jen Catholic University
No.510 Zhongzheng Road, Xinzhuang District, New Taipei City 24205, Taiwan
**Department of Physical Education, Fu Jen Catholic University
No.510 Zhongzheng Road, Xinzhuang District, New Taipei City 24205, Taiwan
This study investigated the relationship between passion for exercise, self-esteem, and well-being of participants of jogging activities. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between passion for exercise, self-esteem, and psychological well-being of participants with different backgrounds and determine whether self-esteem affects the relationship between participants’ passion for exercise and well-being. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 344 valid questionnaires were employed, which included 164 males and 180 females of the jogging activities held by Fu Jen Catholic University. Descriptive statistics, independent sample t-test, one-way analysis of variance, Pearson product-difference correlation, regression, and other statistical methods were performed on the questionnaire to test the correlation between variables. Findings: (1) Different sexes had differences in obsessive passion, (2) different jogging groups had differences in obsessive passion, (3) different grades had differences in negative self-esteem, (4) different ages had harmonious passion, and there were differences in positive self-esteem, (5) the frequency of exercising with peers exhibited differences in psychological well-being and positive self-esteem, (6) there was a correlation between passion, psychological well-being, and self-esteem, and (7) positive self-esteem had a mediating effect on harmonious passion and psychological well-being. Conclusions: Participants of jogging activities are willing to spend time and effort in jogging activities, participate with an open and flexible attitude, and enjoy the process, thus improving positive self-evaluation and achieving a satisfied self-feel. Originality/value: There is less research on the relationship between passion and self-esteem in Taiwan. In addition, the authors not only found the relationship between passion, self-esteem, and psychological well-being from the data, but also found that self-esteem has a mediating effect on the relationship between passion and psychological well-being. Therefore, when organizing similar activities in the future, in addition to using attractive conditions that are more favorable to the participants, attention should be given to conditions that can enhance the self-worth of participants and increase the motivation and number of participants. In addition, participants performing activities with their peers will have more positive self-evaluations and feelings and happier and more satisfied.
-  K.-S. Shih, C.-B. Yang, Y.-H. Chen, K.-L. Hwang, and S.-P. Chang, “Lack of Exercise Habit Among Taiwan University Students,” Sports & Exercise Research, Vol.19, No.3, pp. 255-271, 2017. https://doi.org/10.5297/ser.1903.005
-  Sports Administration, Ministry of Education, Taiwan, “2021 Sports Status Survey Results Announcement Press Conference, Sports Healthy Happy Life, Multi-Sport in Taiwan,” 2021.
-  Sports Administration, Ministry of Education, Taiwan, “The final report of exercise cross-sectional investigation,” 2020.
-  R. J. Vallerand, C. Blanchard, G. A. Mageau, R. Koestner, C. Ratelle, M. Leonard, M. Gagne, and J. Marsolais, “Les passion de l’ame: On obsessive and harmonious passion,” J. of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol.85, No.4, pp. 756-767, 2003. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35184.108.40.2066
-  W.-C. Chang, S.-Y. Chen, and L.-K. Chi, “The relationship between passion and subjective well-being in athletes: The mediating role of positive emotion,” Physical Education J., Vol.45, No.4, pp. 301-309, 2012. https://doi.org/10.6222/pej.4504.201212.0804
-  F.-C. Chang, “Passion, Flow and Well-Being in Sport of the College Athletes – The Mediating Effect of Coach-Athlete Relationship,” Sports Coaching Science, No.44, pp. 67-80, 2016. https://doi.org/10.6194/SCS.2016.44.08
-  T.-S. Huang, “Predictive analysis for passion, basic psychological needs, and well-being in sport of collegial volleyball athletes,” Taiwan J. of Sports Scholarly Research, No.65, pp. 39-56, 2018. https://doi.org/10.6590/TJSSR.201812_(65).03
-  W.-S. Lee, Y.-L. Tu, and J.-D. Liu, “Passion and well-being in sport for physical education programs of the college students–the mediating effect of the fun,” J. of Sport and Recreation Research, Vol.11, No.2, pp. 59-77, 2016. https://doi.org/10.29423/JSRR.201612_11(2).0005
-  J.-D. Liu, M.-H. Hsu, H.-K. Cheng, and W.-S. Lee, “Passion, fun, and well-being in sport for the students participating Physical Education Classes (P.E.C.) in universities in Taiwan–the mediating effect of positive affect,” NCYU Physical Education, Health & Recreation J., Vol.16, No.2, pp. 107-120, 2017. https://doi.org/10.6169/NCYUJPEHR.16.2.08
-  C.-L. Wei, “3×2 Achievement Goal on Psychological Well-Being in University; Passion of Sports as the Mediator Variable,” Fu Jen Catholic University, Master’s thesis, Taiwan, 2020.
-  F. L. Rousseau and R. J. Vallerand, “An examination of the relationship between passion and subjective well-being in older adults,” Int. J. of Aging and Human Development, Vol.66, No.3, pp. 195-211, 2008. https://doi.org/10.2190/ag.66.3.b
-  H.-J. Su, “Related to Exercise Passions and Self-Esteem of Jogging Runners,” Kai Nan University, Master’s thesis, Taiwan, 2019.
-  R. M. Ryan and E. L. Deci, “On happiness and human potentials: A review of research on hedonic and eudaimonic well-being,” Annual Review of Psychology, Vol.52, pp. 141-166, 2001. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.52.1.141
-  E. Diener, “Subjective well-being,” Psychological Bulletin, Vol.95, No.3, pp. 542-575, 1984. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.95.3.542
-  A. H. Maslow, “Motivation and personality (Third edition),” Pearson, 1981.
-  C. D. Ryff, “Happiness is everything, or is it? Explorations on the meaning of psychological well-being,” J. of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol.57, No.6, pp. 1069-1081, 1989. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35220.127.116.119
-  T.-S. Hou and M.-H. Yang, “A Study on Exercise Participation, Exercise Self-Efficacy and Physical Self-Esteem of University Students,” Asia’s Holistic Health and Industrial Development for Senior Citizens J., No.5, pp. 1-15, 2017.
-  D. J. Edwards, S. D. Edwards, and C. J. Basson, “Psychological well-being and physical self-esteem in sport and exercise,” Int. J. of Mental Health Promotion, Vol.6, No.1, pp. 25-32, 2004. https://doi.org/10.1080/14623730.2004.9721921
-  C. C. Tsai and H. E. Liu, “The Concept of Self-Esteem,” The J. Nursing, Vol.43, No.1, pp. 90-94, 1996. https://doi.org/10.6224/JN.43.1.90
-  M.-H. Chen, “A Literature Review on the Relationships of Physical Activity, Self-Concept and Self-Esteem,” Bulletin of Sport and Exercise Psychology of Taiwan, No.11, pp. 17-39, 2007. https://doi.org/10.6497/BSEPT.20071101_(11).0002
-  U. Orth and R. W. Robins, “The development of self-esteem,” Current Directions in Psychological Science, Vol.23, No.5, pp. 381-387, 2014. https://doi.org/10.1177/0963721414547414
-  T.-K. Liu, “Influence of Athletes’ Goal Orientation and Self-Esteem on Attributions and Emotions,” National Taiwan Sport University, Master’s thesis, Taiwan, 2003.
-  C.-C. Li, “The relation of meaningful life, self-esteem, and well-being among college students,” Counseling and Applied Psychology, National Taichung University of Education, Master’s thesis, Taiwan, 2015.
-  Y.-Y. Liu, “The Discussion on Personality Traits, Self-Esteem, and its Relations with Psychological Well-Being of College Students in Taiwan,” Institute of Clinical Psychology, Chung Shan Medical University, Master’s thesis, Taiwan, 2019.
-  L.-H. Chu, “The effect of self-esteem and friendship on resilience and well-being for college students,” Department of Education, National Chengchi University, Master’s thesis, 2011.
-  G. N. Holmbeck, “Post-hoc probing of significant moderational and mediational effects in studies of pediatric populations” J. of Pediatric Psychology, Vol.27, No.1, pp. 87-96, 2002. https://doi.org/10.1093/jpepsy/27.1.87
-  D. P. MacKinnon and J. H. Dwyer, “Estimating mediated effects in prevention studies,” Evaluation Review, Vol.17, No.2, pp. 144-158, 1993. https://doi.org/10.1177/0193841X9301700202
-  J. Cohen and P. Cohen, “Applied multiple regression/correlations analysis for the behavioral sciences,” Taylor & Francis, 1983.
-  M. Sobel, “Trabelin’on: The slave journey to an Afro-Baptist faith,” Princeton University Press, 1988.
-  R. M. Baron and D. A. Kenny, “The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations” J. of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol.51, No.6, Article No.1173, 1986. https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-3518.104.22.1683
-  R. B. Kline, “Principles and practice of structural equation modeling,” Guilford Press, 2015.
-  C.-H. Li, L.-K. Chi, and H.-N. Peng, “Construct Validity of Passion Scale,” Physical Education J., Vol.40, No.3, pp. 77-87, 2007. https://doi.org/10.6222/pej.4003.200709.1107
-  W.-T. Lai and T.-K. Tien-Liu, “Evaluate the Employability of Higher Education by Fuzzy Data,” Int. J. of Intelligent Technologies and Applied Statistics, Vol.6, No.1, pp. 51-64, 2013. https://doi.org/10.6148/IJITAS.2013.0601.04
-  T.-K. Tien-Liu and B. Wu, “Strategic decision system in a leisure sports market,” Int. J. of Innovative Management, Information & Production, Vol.4, No.3, pp. 11-20, 2013.
-  T.-K. Tien-Liu, Y.-Y. Hsu, B. Wu, and W. Lai, “Evaluating city leisure index with soft computing methods,” Innovative Management in Information and Production, pp. 199-206, 2013. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-4857-0_21
-  T.-K. Tien-Liu, C.-C. Liu, and C.-C. Wang, “A New Approach on Investigation Psychological Propensity in Physical Education,” Int. J. of Intelligent Technologies Applied Statistics, Vol.11, No.1, pp. 73-86, 2018. https://doi.org/10.6148/IJITAS.201803_11(1).0005
-  B. Wu, Y.-T. Cheng, and T.-K. Tien-Liu, “Fuzzy Evaluation and Decision Making for Indigenous Physical Curriculum,” Int. J. of Information and Management Sciences, Vol.26, pp. 1-11, 2015. https://doi.org/10.6186/IJIMS.2015.26.1.1
-  B. Wu, W. Lai, C.-L. Wu, and T.-K. Tien-Liu, “Correlation with Fuzzy Data and its Applications in the 12-Year Compulsory Education in Taiwan,” Communications in Statistics – Simulation and Computation, Vol.45, No.4, pp. 1337-1354, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1080/03610918.2013.827712
-  B. Wu, T.-K. Tien-Liu, C.-L. Wu, and W. Lai, “Statistical Analysis with Soft Computation for Fuzzy Answering in Sampling Survey,” Communications in Statistics – Simulation and Computation, Vol.45, No.4, pp. 1295-1306, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1080/03610918.2013.826362
-  M. Rosenberg, “Society and the adolescent self-image,” Princeton University Press, 1965.
-  C.-H. Wang, “Personality Traits, Online Relationships and Internet Addiction,” Fu Jen Catholic University, Master’s thesis, Taiwan, 2001.
-  C.-C. Lin, “Chinese Revision of the “Psychological Well-Being Scale”,” Psychological Testing, Vol.62, No.4, pp. 261-277, 2015.
-  E. Diener, D. Wirtz, R. Biswas-Diener, W. Tov, C. Kim-Prieto, D.-W. Choi, and S. Oishi, “New measures of well-being,” E. Diener (Ed.), “Assessing well-being: The collected works of Ed Diener,” pp. 247-266, Springer, 2009. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-90-481-2354-4_12
-  W.-P. Chang, “Study on Sports Person Ship and Passion in Sport of Collegiate Student Athletes,” Institute of Exercise Science Taipei Physical Education College, Master’s thesis, 2011.
-  S. Jiang, “Psychological well-being and distress in adolescents: An investigation into associations with poverty, peer victimization, and self-esteem,” Children and Youth Services Review, Vol.111, Article No.104824, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2020.104824
This article is published under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 Internationa License.