JACIII Vol.23 No.4 pp. 767-774
doi: 10.20965/jaciii.2019.p0767


An Objective Indicator Focused on the Symmetrical Movements of the Arms to Assess Gait Stability

Yuki Azuma*, Kouki Nagamune*, and Ryosuke Kuroda**

*Graduate School of Engineering, University of Fukui
3-9-1 Bunkyo, Fukui, Fukui 910-8507, Japan

**Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine
7-5-1 Kusu, Chuo, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0017, Japan

March 13, 2018
March 12, 2019
July 20, 2019
gait analysis, arm, symmetry, inertial sensor, bend sensor

The purpose of this study was to assess the symmetrical movements of the arms during walking to prevent falling. In this study, we developed a measurement and analysis system to assess walking movements objectively. In addition, index values were calculated as the symmetry of arm movements. Five healthy participants performed two tasks. The first task was straight walking. The second task was straight walking with weight attached to one arm. The results showed high index values of the swinging arms in both tasks. The index values of the bending arms were greater in the first task than in the second task. Consequently, the index values indicated the symmetrical movements of walking.

Cite this article as:
Yuki Azuma, Kouki Nagamune, and Ryosuke Kuroda, “An Objective Indicator Focused on the Symmetrical Movements of the Arms to Assess Gait Stability,” J. Adv. Comput. Intell. Intell. Inform., Vol.23, No.4, pp. 767-774, 2019.
Data files:
  1. [1] S. N. Robinovitch, F. Feldman, Y. Yang, R. Schonnop, P. M. Lueng, T. Sarraf, J. Sims-Gould, and M, Loughin, “Video Capture of the Circumstances of Falls in Elderly People Residing in Long-term Care: an Observational Study,” The Lanset, Vol.381, pp. 47-54, 2013.
  2. [2] J. A. Grisso, D. F. Schwarz, A. R. Wishner, B. Weene, J. H. Holmes, and R. L. Sutton, “Injuries in an Elderly Inner-city Population,” J Am Geriatr Soc, Vol.38, pp. 1326-1331, 1990.
  3. [3] M. Palvanen, P. Kannus, J. Parkkari, T. Pitkäjärvi, M. Pasanen, I. Vuori, and M. Järvinen, “The Injury Mechanisms of Osteoporotic Upper Extremity Fractures among Older Adults: a Controlled Study of 287 Consecutive Patients and their 108 Controls,” Osteoporos Int., Vol.38, pp. 822-831, 2000.
  4. [4] “National Institute of Population and Social Security Research,” [accessed March 12, 2018]
  5. [5] K. Götz-Neumann, “Observational Gait Instructor Group,” K. Tsukishiro et al. (trans.), Igaku-Shoin Ltd., 2005 (in Japanese).
  6. [6] S. H. Collins, P. G. Adamczyk, and A. D. Kuo, “Dynamic arm swinging in human walking,” Proc. Biol Sci., Vol.276, pp. 3679-3688, 2009.
  7. [7] J. Riad, S. Coleman D. Lundh, and E. Broström, “Arm posture score and arm movement during walking: a comprehensive assessment in spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy,” Gait & Posture, Vol.33, pp. 48-53, 2011.
  8. [8] D. Podsiadlo and S. Richardson, “The Timed “Up & Go”: a Test of Basic Functional Mobility for Frail Elderly Persons,” J. of the American Geriatrics Society, Vol.39, No.2, pp. 142-148, 1991.
  9. [9] M. J. Watson, “Refining the Ten-metre Walking Test for Use with Neurologically Impaired People,” Phisiotherapy, Vol.88, No.7, pp. 386-397, 2002.
  10. [10] R. W. Bohannon, “Comfortable and Maximum Walking Speed of Adults Ages 20-79 Years: Reference Values and Determinants,” Age and Aging, Vol.26, pp. 15-19, 1997.
  11. [11] K. Bennell, F. Dobson, and R. Hinman, “Measures of physical performance assessments: Self-Paced Walk Test (SPWT), Stair Climb Test (SCT), Six-Minute Walk Test (6MWT), Chair Stand Test (CST), Timed Up & Go (TUG), Sock Test, Lift and Carry Test (LCT), and Car Task,” Arthritis Care & Research, Vol.63, No.S11, pp. S350-S370, 2011.
  12. [12] E. Mirek, J. L. Kubica, J. Szymura, S. Pasiut, M. Rudzińska, and W. Chwał a, “Assessment of Gait Therapy Effectiveness in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease on the Basis of Three-Dimensional Movement Analysis,” Frontiers in Neurology, Vol.7, pp. 1-8, 2016.
  13. [13] E. Mirek, M. Rudzińska, and A. Szczudlik, “The Assessment of Gait Disorders in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease Using the Three-dimensional Motion Analysis System Vicon,” Neurol Neurochir Pol., Vol.41, pp. 128-133, 2007.
  14. [14] K. C. Siu, R. D. Catena, L. S. Chou, P. van Donkelaar, and M. H. Woollacott, “Effects of Secondary Task on Obstacle Avoidance in Healthy Young Adults,” Experimetal Brain Reaserch, Vol.184, No.1, pp. 115-120, 2008.
  15. [15] S. Tadano, R. Takeda, and H. Miyagawa, “Three Dimensional Gait Analysis Using Wearable Acceleration and Gyro Sensors Based on Quaternion Calculations,” Sensors, Vol.13, No.7, pp. 9321-9343, 2013.
  16. [16] S. S. Shin, D. H. An, and W. G. Yoo, “Effects of Balance Control Through Trunk Movement During Square and Semicircular Turns on Gait Velocity, Center of Mass Acceleration, and Energy Expenditure in Older Adults,” PM&R, Vol.8, No.10, pp. 953-961, 2016.

*This site is desgined based on HTML5 and CSS3 for modern browsers, e.g. Chrome, Firefox, Safari, Edge, Opera.

Last updated on Jan. 15, 2021