Incremental Loop Closure Verification by Guided Sampling
University of Fukui
3-9-1 Bunkyo, Fukui 910-8507, Japan
Loop closure detection, which is the task of identifying locations revisited by a robot in a sequence of odometry and perceptual observations, is typically formulated as a combination of two subtasks: (1) bag-of-words image retrieval and (2) post-verification using random sample consensus (RANSAC) geometric verification. The main contribution of this study is the proposal of a novel post-verification framework that achieves good precision recall trade-off in loop closure detection. This study is motivated by the fact that not all loop closure hypotheses are equally plausible (e.g., owing to mutual consistency between loop closure constraints) and that if we have evidence that one hypothesis is more plausible than the others, then it should be verified more frequently. We demonstrate that the loop closure detection problem can be viewed as an instance of a multi-model hypothesize-and-verify framework. Thus, we can build guided sampling strategies on this framework where loop closures proposed using image retrieval are verified in a planned order (rather than in a conventional uniform order) to operate in a constant time. Experimental results using a stereo simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) system confirm that the proposed strategy, the use of loop closure constraints and robot trajectory hypotheses as a guide, achieves promising results despite the fact that there exists a significant number of false positive constraints and hypotheses.
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