Robust Watermarking Using n-Diagonalization Based on Householder Transform
Jaesung Park, Kazuhito Sawase, and Hajime Nobuhara
Department of Intelligent Interaction Technologies, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573, Japan
Digital image watermarking based on singular value decomposition (SVD) is highly robust against misuse, but lacks the ability to distinguish whether watermarks are correct due to the importance of singular values being lower than two orthogonal matrices. To achieve highly accurate watermark extraction while maintaining high robustness, we propose robust watermarking based on discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and n-diagonalization formalized by Householder transformation. We propose that DWT be used to ensure visibility and that n-diagonalization be used to control information quantity related to watermark extraction accuracy. Experimental results confirm the robustness of our proposed method and that the extraction accuracy of the proposed method is approximately 2 times better than that of SVD.
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