JACIII Vol.15 No.7 pp. 806-812
doi: 10.20965/jaciii.2011.p0806


Multiagent Strategic Interaction Based on a Game Theoretical Approach to Polarization Reversal in Ferroelectric Capacitors

Dan Ricinschi* and Eisuke Tokumitsu**

*Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, G2-25, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502, Japan

**Precision and Intelligence Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, R2-19, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503, Japan

February 28, 2011
June 6, 2011
September 20, 2011
ferroelectrics, game theory, unconventional computing, artificial intelligence

Ferroelectric materials are currently integrated in nonvolatile memory devices, whose principle is to allocate 0 and 1 logic bits to opposite orientations of the spontaneous polarization vector that are permitted by crystal symmetry. Typically made of randomly oriented grains, ferroelectrics tend to split into domains, according to the experienced sequence of electric fields, thermal treatments and any structural imperfections. On this background, we attempt to formulate new principles of exploiting such structural and operational degrees of freedom for unconventional applications of ferroelectrics. In this paper, we envision a new paradigm of ferroelectrics as processors of multiagent strategic interactions, employing unconventional mathematical tools (normally used for optimizing the decision-making process of rational human subjects) for analyzing ferroelectric capacitors’ response to combinatorial pulses. Specifically, we quantify the way microscopic assembly laws of the ferroelectric material mediate the amount of polarization reversed by two electrical pulses using the mathematical theory of games, applied to a strategic interaction between two hypothetical players impersonated by the two pulses. Such socially meaningful implementations of applied mathematics concepts onto an oxide material substrate are worth to consider in view of artificial intelligence applications, adding ferroelectrics to the class of media able to perform unconventional computations.

Cite this article as:
Dan Ricinschi and Eisuke Tokumitsu, “Multiagent Strategic Interaction Based on a Game Theoretical Approach to Polarization Reversal in Ferroelectric Capacitors,” J. Adv. Comput. Intell. Intell. Inform., Vol.15, No.7, pp. 806-812, 2011.
Data files:
  1. [1] J. F. Scott, “Ferroelectric Memories,” Springer, 2000.
  2. [2] J. Y. Li et al., “Domain switching in polycrystalline ferroelectric ceramics,” Nature Mater., Vol.4, pp. 776-781, 2005.
  3. [3] M. W. Chu et al., “Impact of misfit dislocations on the polarization instability of epitaxial nanostructured ferroelectric perovskites,” Nature Mater., Vol.3, pp. 87-90, 2004.
  4. [4] E. Tokumitsu, N. Tanisake, and H. Ishiwara, “Partial switching kinetics of ferroelectric PZT thin films prepared by sol-gel technique,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Vol.33, pp. 5201-5206, 1994.
  5. [5] D. Ricinschi et al., “Synergistic information encoding by combinatorial pulse operation of ferroelectrics,” Appl. Phys. Lett., Vol.95, p. 202905, 2009.
  6. [6] Y. Shoham and K. Leyton-Brown, “Multiagent Systems: Algorithmic, Game-Theoretic, and Logical Foundations,” Cambridge University Press, 2008.
  7. [7] G. Szabo and G. Fath, “Evolutionary games on graphs,” Phys. Rep., Vol.446, pp. 97-216, 2007.
  8. [8] J. Eisert and M. Wilkens “Quantum games,” J. Mod Opt., Vol.47, pp. 2543-2556, 2000.
  9. [9] A. N. Kolmogorov, “On the Statistical Theory of Crystallization of Metals (in Russian),” Izv. Akad. Nauk. Math., Vol.3, pp. 355-359, 1937.
  10. [10] M. Avrami, “Kinetics of phase change,” J. Chem. Phys., Vol.7, pp. 1103-1112, 1939.
  11. [11] Y. Ishibashi and Y. Takagi, “Note on Ferroelectric Domain Switching,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn., Vol.31, pp. 506-510, 1971.
  12. [12] A. K. Tagantsev et al., “Non-Kolmogorov-Avrami switching kinetics in ferroelectric thin films,” Phys. Rev. B, Vol.66, p. 214109, 2002.
  13. [13] J . Y. Jo et al., “Domain switching kinetics in disordered ferroelectric thin films,” Phys. Rev. Lett., Vol.99, p. 267602, 2007.
  14. [14] O. Lohse et al., “Relaxation mechanism of ferroelectric switching in Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys., Vol.98, pp. 2332-2336, 2001.
  15. [15] D. Ricinschi and M. Okuyama, “Control of analog ferroelectric states by small dc-bias in conjunction with fluctuating waveforms,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., Vol.42, p. 085410, 2009.
  16. [16] S. Stepney, “The Neglected Pillar of Material Computation,” Physica D, Vol.237, pp. 1157-1164, 2008.
  17. [17] S. Bringsjord et al., “Toward Logic-Based Cognitively Robust Synthetic Characters in Digital Environments,” Proc. of the 1st Artific. Gen. Int. Conf., pp. 87-98, 2008.
  18. [18] A. Gruverman et al., “Direct studies of domain switching dynamics in thin film ferroelectric capacitors,” Appl. Phys. Lett., Vol.87, p. 082902, 2005.
  19. [19] A. Grigoriev et al., “Nanosecond domain wall dynamics in ferroelectric Pb(Zr, Ti)O(3) thin films,” Phys. Rev. Lett., Vol.96, p. 187601, 2006.
  20. [20] H. Fujisawa, M. Shimizu, and H. Niu, “Piezoresponse Force Microscopy Observations of Switching Behavior in Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 Capacitors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Vol.43, pp. 6571-6575, 2004.
  21. [21] S.M. Yang et al., “Domain wall motion in epitaxial Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 capacitors investigated by modified piezoresponse force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett., Vol.92, p. 252901, 2008.

*This site is desgined based on HTML5 and CSS3 for modern browsers, e.g. Chrome, Firefox, Safari, Edge, Opera.

Last updated on Feb. 25, 2021