Eligibility Propagation to Speed up Time Hopping for Reinforcement Learning
Petar S. Kormushev*, Kohei Nomoto**, Fangyan Dong*,
and Kaoru Hirota*
*Department of Computational Intelligence and Systems Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama, 226-8502, Japan
**Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamagata University, Yamagata, Japan
A mechanism called Eligibility Propagation is proposed to speed up the Time Hopping technique used for faster Reinforcement Learning in simulations. Eligibility Propagation provides for Time Hopping similar abilities to what eligibility traces provide for conventional Reinforcement Learning. It propagates values from one state to all of its temporal predecessors using a state transitions graph. Experiments on a simulated biped crawling robot confirm that Eligibility Propagation accelerates the learning process more than 3 times.
and Kaoru Hirota, “Eligibility Propagation to Speed up Time Hopping for Reinforcement Learning,” J. Adv. Comput. Intell. Intell. Inform., Vol.13, No.6, pp. 600-607, 2009.
-  R. S. Sutton and A. G. Barto, “Reinforcement Learning: An Introduction,” Cambridge, MA, MIT Press, 1998.
-  M. Humphrys, “Action Selection methods using Reinforcement Learning,” Ph.D. Thesis, University of Cambridge, June 1997.
-  L. P. Kaelbling, M. L. Littman, and A. W. Moore, “Reinforcement learning: A survey,” J. of Artificial Intelligence Research, Vol.4, pp. 237-285, 1996.
-  C. J. C. H. Watkins and P. Dayan, “Q-learning,” Mach. Learn., Vol.8, pp. 279-292, 1992.
-  R.S. Sutton, “Learning to predict by the methods of temporal difference,” Mach. Learn., Vol.3, pp. 9-44, 1988.
-  P. Dayan and T. J. Sejnowski, “TD (λ) converges with probability 1,” Mach. Learn., Vol.14, No.3, pp. 295-301, 1994.
-  D. Precup, R.S. Sutton, and S. Dasgupta, “Off-policy temporal-difference learning with function approximation,” In Proc. of the Eighteenth Conf. on Machine Learning (ICML 2001), M. Kaufmann (Ed.), pp. 417-424, 2001.
-  A. Coates, P. Abbeel, and A. Ng, “Learning for Control from Multiple Demonstrations,” ICML, Vol.25, 2008.
-  A. Ng, “Reinforcement Learning and Apprenticeship Learning for Robotic Control,” Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol.4264, pp. 29-31, 2006.
-  P. Abbeel and A. Ng, “Exploration and apprenticeship learning in reinforcement learning,” ICML, 2005.
-  P. Abbeel, A. Coates, M. Quigley, and A. Ng, “An application of reinforcement learning to aerobatic helicopter flight,” NIPS, Vol.19, 2007.
-  B. Price and C. Boutilier, “Accelerating Reinforcement Learning through Implicit Imitation,” J. of Artificial Intelligence Research, Vol.19, pp. 569-629, 2003.
-  A. Barto and S. Mahadevan, “Recent Advances in Hierarchical Reinforcement Learning,” Discrete Event Dynamic Systems, Vol.13, pp. 341-379, 2003.
-  T. G. Dietterich, “Hierarchical Reinforcement Learning with the MAXQ Value Function Decomposition,” J. Artif. Intell. Res., Vol.13, pp. 227-303, 2000.
-  J. Kolter, M. Rodgers, and A. Ng, “A Control Architecture for Quadruped Locomotion Over Rough Terrain,” IEEE Int. Conf. on Robotics and Automation, 2008.
-  J. Kolter, P. Abbeel, and A. Ng, “Hierarchical Apprenticeship Learning, with Application to Quadruped Locomotion,” Neural Information Processing Systems, Vol.20, 2007.
-  M. Kearns and S. Singh, “Near-optimal reinforcement learning in polynomial time,” Machine Learning, 2002.
-  P. Kormushev, K. Nomoto, F. Dong, and K. Hirota, “Time manipulation technique for speeding up reinforcement learning in simulations,” Int. J. of Cybernetics and Information Technologies, Vol.8, No.1, pp. 12-24, 2008.
-  P. Kormushev, K. Nomoto, F. Dong, and K. Hirota, “Time Hopping technique for faster reinforcement learning in simulations,” available online at arXiv:0904.0545, 2009.
-  M. Kearns, Y. Mansour, and A. Y. Ng, “A sparse sampling algorithm for near-optimal planning in large Markov decision processes,” Proc. of the 16th Int. Joint Conf. on Artificial Intelligence, pp. 1324-1331, 1999.
-  A. W. Moore, “Prioritized Sweeping: Reinforcement Learning With Less Data and Less Time,” Machine Learning, Vol.13, pp. 103-129, 1994.
This article is published under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.