Micro Robot Control by Use of Electroencephalograms from Right Frontal Area
Takahiro Yamanoi*1, Hisashi Toyoshima*2, Toshimasa Yamazaki*3, Shin-ichi Ohnishi*1, Michio Sugeno*4, and Elie Sanchez*5
*1 Division of Electronics and Information Engineering, Hokkai-Gakuen University, W11-1-1, S26, Chuo-ku, Sapporo 064-0926 Japan
*2 Japan Technical Software, West 3-1-14, North 21, North ward, Sapporo 001-0021, Japan
*3 Department of Bioscience and Bioinformatics, Kyushu Institute of Technology, 680-4 Kawazu, Iizuka, Fukuoka 820-8502, Japan
*4 Faculty of Information Science, Doshisha University, Miyako-dani, Tatara, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-0394 Japan
*5 LIF, Faculty of Medicine, Aix-Marseille University, Faculte de Medecine, 27 Bd Jean Moulin 13385 Marseille Cedex5, France
In order to develop a brain machine interface, the authors have investigated the brain activity during human recognition of characters and symbols representing directional meaning. They have recorded electroencephalograms (EEGs) from subjects viewing four types of Kanji (Chinese characters being used currently in the Japanese language) and arrows that were presented on a CRT. Each of the four characters or symbols denoted direction for upward, downward, leftward and rightward, respectively. Subjects were asked to read the characters or symbols, silently. EEGs were averaged for each stimulus type and direction, and event related potentials (ERPs) were obtained. The equivalent current dipole source localization (ECDL) method has been applied to these ERPs. In both cases, equivalent current dipoles (ECDs) were localized to areas related to the working memory for spatial perception, such as the right upper or the right middle frontal areas. Taking into account these facts, the authors have investigated a single trial EEGs of the subject precisely after the latency at 400 ms, and it was determined effective sampling latencies for the discriminant analysis to four types of arrow: ↑, ↓, ←, and →. EEG data have been sampled at latency from 400 ms to 900 ms at 25 ms interval by the three channels in the right upper and the right middle frontal gyri. Results of the discriminant analysis for four type objective variates, presented discriminant rates were above 80%. By four type code of infrared rays according to the discrimination results from a PC, the authors have controlled a micro robot, the e-puck, with four orders: forward, rotate clockwise, rotate counterclockwise and stop.
-  R. A. McCarthy and E. K. Warrington, “Cognitive neuropsychology: a clinical introduction,” Academic Press, San Diego, 1990.
-  Geschwind and A. M. Galaburda, “Cerebral Lateralization,” The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1987.
-  K. Parmer, P. C. Hansen, M. L. Kringelbach, I. Holliday, G. Barnes, A. Hillebrand, K. H. Singh, and P. L. Cornelissen, “Visual word recognition: the first half second,” NuroImage, Vol.22-4, pp. 1819-1825, 2004.
-  T. Yamanoi, T. Yamazaki, J.-L. Vercher, E. Sanchez, and M. Sugeno, “Dominance of recognition of words presented on right or left eye -Comparison of Kanji and Hiragana-,” Modern Information Processing, From Theory to Applications, Elsevier Science B.V., Oxford, pp. 407-416, 2006.
-  T. Yamanoi, H. Toyoshima, S. Ohnishi, and T.Yamazaki, “Localization of brain activity to visual stimuli of linear movement of a circle by equivalent current dipole analysis,” Proc. of the 19th Symposium on Biological and Physical Engineering, pp. 271-272, 2004 (in Japanese).
-  T. Yamazaki, K. Kamijo, T. Kiyuna, Y. Takaki, Y. Kuroiwa, A. Ochi, and H. Otsubo, “PC-based multiple equivalent current dipole source localization system and its applications,” Res. Adv. in Biomedical Eng., 2, pp. 97-109, 2001.
-  T. Yamanoi, H. Toyoshima, S. Ohnishi, T. Yamazaki, and M. Sugeno, “Spatiotemporal Human Brain Activities by Visual Stimulus of Directional Characters and Symbols,” Proc. 3rd Int. Symposium on Computational Intelligence and Intelligent Informatics- ISCIII2007, Agadir, Morocco, pp. 195-198, 2007.
-  T. Yamanoi, H. Toyoshima, S. Ohnishi, T. Yamazaki, and M. Sugeno, “Fundamental research for brain machine interface by use of EEG from right upper frontal gyrus,” Engineering Research, The Bulletin of Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkai-Gakuen University, Sapporo, pp. 43-47, 2007.
-  http://www.e-puck.org/
-  T. Yamanoi, H. Toyoshima, S. Ohnishi, T. Yamazaki, and M. Sugeno, “Micro Robot Control by EEG on Mental Translation with Directional Symbols,” the Fifth Int. Conf. on Computational Intelligence,Robotics and Autonomous Systems-CIRAS2008, Linz, Austria, pp. 79-83, 2008.