Expert System-Type Approach to Voice Disorders: Scheduling Botulinum Toxin Treatment for Adductor Spasmodic Dysphonia
Anthony P. Salvatore*, Amitava Biswas*, Vladik Kreinovich*,
Bertha Manriquez*, Michael P. Cannito**, and Robert J. Sinard***
*University of Texas at El Paso, 500 W. University, El Paso, TX 79968, USA
**Speech and Hearing Center, School of Audiology and Speech-Language Pathology, The University of Memphis, Memphis, TN 38105, USA
***Department of Otolaryngology, University of Texas, Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, 5323 Harry Hines Boulevard, Dallas, TX 75390, USA
One of the most debilitating voice disorders is adductor spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD), a voice disorder caused by involuntary movements of the muscles of the larynx (voice box). For treating ADSD, botulinum toxin (BT) injections turned out to be very useful. However, the effects of BT are highly variable, so at present, there is no objective criterion of when such a BT treatment is necessary. It is therefore desirable to develop such a criterion. In this paper, we show that traditional statistical techniques are unable to generate such a criterion, while a natural expert system approach seems to be capable of generating reasonably simple rules that determine when a BT treatment is necessary.
Bertha Manriquez, Michael P. Cannito, and Robert J. Sinard, “Expert System-Type Approach to Voice Disorders: Scheduling Botulinum Toxin Treatment for Adductor Spasmodic Dysphonia,” J. Adv. Comput. Intell. Intell. Inform., Vol.10, No.3, pp. 332-338, 2006.
-  A. E. Aronson, T. V. McCaffrey, W. J. Litchy, and R. J. Lipton, Laryngoscope, Vol.103, pp. 683-692, 1993.
-  M. P. Cannito, A. R. Burch, C. Watts, P. W. Rappold, S. B. Hood, and K. Sherrard, “Disfluency in Spasmodic Dysphonia: A Multivariate Analysis,” Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, Vol.40, pp. 627-641, 1997.
-  M. P. Cannito, G. E. Woodson, and T. Murry, “Perceptual Scaling of Spasmodic Dysphonia Before and After Botulinum Toxin Treatment,” In: H. K. Schutte, P. Dejonckere, Leezenberg, B. Mondelaers, and H. F. M. Peters (eds.), Communication and Its Disorders: A Science in Progress, Nijmegen University Press, pp. 161-163, 1999.
-  A. M. Cimino-Knight, and C. M. Sapienza, “Consistency of Voice Produced by Patients With Adductor Spasmodic Dysphonia: A Preliminary Investigation,” Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, Vol.44, pp. 793-802, 2001.
-  G. Fairbanks, “Voice and Articulation Drillbook,” New York: Harper & Row, 1960.
-  C. N. Ford, D. M. Bless, and N. Y. Patel, “Botulinum Toxin Treatment of Spasmodic Dysphonia: Techniques, Indications, Efficacy,” Journal of Voice, Vol.6, No.4, pp. 370-376, 1992.
-  T. P. M. Langeveld, E. H. Houtman, J. J. Briaire, M. van Rossum, A. H. Zwinderman, and R. J. Baatenburg De Jong, “Evaluation of Voice Quality in Adductor Spasmodic Dysphonia Before and After Botulinum Toxin Treatment,” Ann. Otolaryngol., Vol.110, pp. 627-634, 2001.
-  C. L. Ludlow, R. F. Naunton, S. Terada, and B. J. Anderson, “Successful treatment of selected cases of abductor spasmodic dysphonia using botulinum toxin injection,” Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Vol.104, No.6, pp. 849-855, 1991.
-  D. S. Lundy, F. Ling Lu, R. R. Casiano, and J. W. Xue, “The Effect of Patient Factors on Response Outcomes to Botox Treatment of Spasmodic Dysphonia,” Journal of Voice, Vol.12, No.4, pp. 460-466, 1998.
-  R. Rosenthal, and R. L. Rosnow, “Essentials of Behavioral Research: Methods and Data Analysis,” New York City: McGraw Hill, Inc., 1991.
-  A. P. Salvatore, M. P. Cannito, and G. S. Gutierrez, “Spasmodic Dysphonia: A Neural Net Analysis,” Journal of Medical Speech-Language Pathology, Vol.7, No.2, pp. 169-174, 1999.
-  A. P. Salvatore, M. P. Cannito, A. Biswas, R. Ingham, B. K. Bender, and B. Manriquez, “Artificial Neural Network Categorization of Speech Fluency Measures Across Speech Disorders,” Abstracts of the Motor Speech Conference, Williamsburg, VA, 2002.
-  C. M. Sapienza, S. Walton, and T. Murry, “Acoustic Variations in Adductor Spasmodic Dysphonia as a Function of Speech Task,” Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, Vol.42, pp. 127-140, 1999.
-  D. D. Truong, M. Rontal, M. Rolnick, A. E. Aronson, and K. Mistua, “Double-Blind Controlled Study of Botulinum Toxin in Adductor Spasmodic Dysphonia,” Laryngoscope, Vol.101, No.1, pp. 630-634, 1991.
-  G. E. Woodson, P. Zwirner, T. Murry, and M. R. Swenson, “Functional Assessment of Patients With Spasmodic Dysphonia,” Journal of Voice, Vol.6, No.4, pp. 338-343, 1992.
-  P. Zwirner, T. Murry, M. Swenson, and G. E. Woodson, “Effects of Botulinum Toxin Therapy in Patients With Adductor Spasmodic Dysphonia: Acoustic, Aerodynamic, and Videoendoscopic Findings,” Laryngoscope, Vol.102, pp. 400-406, 1992.
This article is published under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.