Rule Extraction from Data
Department of Information Electronics Nagoya University Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603, Japan
Rule extraction from data is one of the key technologies for solving the bottlenecks in artificial intelligence. Artificial neural networks are well suited for representing any knowledge in given data. Extraction of logical/fuzzy rules from the trained artificial neural network is of great importance to researchers in the fields of artificial intelligence and soft computing. Fuzzy rule sets are capable of approximating any nonlinear mapping relationships. Extraction of rules from data has been discussed in terms of fuzzy modeling, fuzzy clustering, and classification with fuzzy rule sets. This special issue entitled”Rule Extraction from Data” is aimed at providing the readers with good insights into the advanced studies in the field of rule extraction from data using neural networks/fuzzy rule sets. I invited seven research papers best suited for the theme of this special issue. All the papers were reviewed rigorously by two reviewers each. The first paper proposes an interesting rule extraction method from data using neural networks. Ishikawa presents a combination of learning with an immediate critic and a structural learning with forgetting. This method is capable of generating skeletal networks for logical rule extraction from data with correct and wrong answers. The proposed method is applied to rule extraction from lense data. The second paper presents a new methodology for logical rule extraction based on transformation of MLP (multilayered perceptron) to a logical network. Duck et al. applied their C-MLP2LN to the Iris benchmark classification problem as well as real-world medical data with very good results. In the third paper, Geczy and Usui propose fuzzy rule extraction from trained artificial neural networks. The proposed algorithm is implied from their theoretical study, not from heuristics. Their study enables to initially consider derivation of crisp rules from trained artificial neural network, and in case of conflict, application of fuzzy rules. The proposed algorithm is experimentally demonstrated with the Iris benchmark classification problem. The fourth paper presents a new framework for fuzzy modeling using genetic algorithm. The authors have broken new ground of fuzzy rule extraction from neural networks. For the fuzzy modeling, they have proposed a particular type of neural networks containing nodes representing membership functions. In this fourth paper, the authors discuss input variable selection for the fuzzy modeling under multiple criteria with different importance. A target system with a strong nonlinearity is used for demonstrating the proposed method. Kasabov, et al. present, in the fifth paper, a method for extraction of fuzzy rules that have different level of abstraction depending on several modifiable thresholds. Explanation quality becomes better with higher threshold values. They apply the proposed method to the Iris benchmark classification problem and to a real world problem. J. Yen and W. Gillespie address interpretability issue of Takagi-Sugeno-Kang model, one of the most popular fuzzy mdoels, in the fifth paper. They propose a new approach of fuzzy modeling that ensures not only a high approximation of the input-output relationship in the data, but also good insights about the local behavior of the model. The proposed method is applied to fuzzy modeling of sinc function and Mackey-Glass chaotic time series data. The last paper discusses fuzzy rule extraction from numerical data for high-dimensional classification problems. H.Ishibuchi, et al. have been pioneering methods for classification of data using fuzzy rules and genetic algorithm. In this last paper, they introduced a new criterion, simplicity of each rule, together with the conventional ones, compactness of rule base and classification ability, for high-dimensional problem. The Iris data is used for demonstrating their new classification method. They applied it also to wine data and credit data. I hope that the readers will be encouraged to explore the frontier to establish a new paradigm in the field of knowledge representation and rule extraction.