single-au.php

IJAT Vol.18 No.3 pp. 444-452
doi: 10.20965/ijat.2024.p0444
(2024)

Research Paper:

Improving Machined Accuracy Under a Constant Feed Speed Vector at the End-Milling Point by Estimating Machining Force in Tool Approach

Takamaru Suzuki*,† ORCID Icon, Toshiki Hirogaki**, and Eiichi Aoyama**

*Machine Systems Engineering Course, Department of Creative Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Kitakyushu College
5-20-1 Shii, Kokuraminami-ku, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 802-0985, Japan

Corresponding author

**Department of Mechanical Engineering, Doshisha University
Kyotanabe, Japan

Received:
September 28, 2023
Accepted:
February 28, 2024
Published:
May 5, 2024
Keywords:
five-axis machining center, synchronous motion, machined shape error, wireless IoT tool holder, machining force
Abstract

A five-axis machining center (5MC) is capable of synchronous control, which makes it a feasible tool for quickly and accurately machining complicated three-dimensional surfaces, such as propellers and hypoid gears. Recently, the necessity of improving both the machined shape accuracy and the machined surface roughness of free-form surfaces is growing. Therefore, in our previous study, we aimed to maintain the feed speed vector at the end-milling point by controlling two linear axes and a rotary axis of the 5MC to improve the quality of the machined surface. Additionally, we developed a method for maintaining the feed speed vector at the end-milling point by controlling the three axes of the 5MC to reduce the shape error of the machined workpieces (referred to as the shape error herein), considering the approach path of the tool determined via calculation. However, a high machining force at the start of the workpiece cutting was observed and the factor contributing to this phenomenon was not determined, although this phenomenon leads to a shape error to a certain degree according to the machining condition. In this study, the main objective is to suggest a method to reduce the machining force at the start of the workpiece cutting and shape error. Hence, we develop a theoretical method to estimate the machining force by using an instantaneous cutting force model, which considers the synchronized motion of two linear axes and a rotary axis of the 5MC. Subsequently, we determine the most suitable approach path of the tool considering the prediction of the machining force. The results of this study indicate that the machining force can be estimated by applying an instantaneous cutting force using the feed per tooth and machining angle, and that both a high machining force at the start of the workpiece cutting and shape error reduction can be realized by using the proposed approach path of the tool.

Cite this article as:
T. Suzuki, T. Hirogaki, and E. Aoyama, “Improving Machined Accuracy Under a Constant Feed Speed Vector at the End-Milling Point by Estimating Machining Force in Tool Approach,” Int. J. Automation Technol., Vol.18 No.3, pp. 444-452, 2024.
Data files:
References
  1. [1] Y. Ihara, K. Tsuji, and T. Tajima, “Ball Bar Measurement of Motion Accuracy in Simulating Cone Frustum Cutting on Multi-Axis Machine Tools,” Int. J. of Automation Technol., Vol.11, No.2, pp. 197-205, 2017. https://doi.org/10.20965/ijat.2017.p0197
  2. [2] T. Nishiguchi, S. Hasegawa, R. Sato, and K. Shirase, “Evaluation Method for Behavior of Rotary Axis Around Motion Direction Changing,” Int. J. of Automation Technol., Vol.11, No.2, pp. 171-178, 2017. https://doi.org/10.20965/ijat.2017.p0171
  3. [3] J. Francis Reintjes, “Numerical Control: Making a New Technology,” Oxford University Press, pp. 66-72, 1991.
  4. [4] R. Sato, K. Morishita, I. Nishida, K. Shirase, M. Hasegawa, A. Saito, and T. Iwasaki, “Improvement of Simultaneous 5-Axis Controlled Machining Accuracy by CL-Data Modification,” Int. J. Automation Technol., Vol.13, No.5, pp. 583-592, 2019. https://doi.org/10.20965/ijat.2019.p0583
  5. [5] E.-Y. Heo, D.-W. Kim, B.-H. Kim, D.-K. Jang, and F. Frank, “Efficient Rough-Cut Plan for Machining an Impeller with a 5-Axis NC Machine,” Int. J. of Computer Integrated Manufacturing, Vol.21, No.8, pp. 971-983, 2008. https://doi.org/10.1080/09511920802010761
  6. [6] N. Natsume, K. Nakamoto, T. Ishida, and Y. Takauchi, “Tool Path Generation for Five-Axis Control Semi Finishing by Use of Square End Mill,” Trans. of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers, Series C, Vol.78, No.793, pp. 3305-3316, 2012 (in Japanese). https://doi.org/10.1299/kikaic.78.3305
  7. [7] A. Saito, M. Tsutsumi, S. Mikami, and S. Sisavath, “Development of Calibration Methods of 5-axis Controlled Machining Centers (3rd Report) –Measurement Methods for Various Structural Configurations of 5-axis Controlled Machining Centers–,” J. of the Japan Society for Precision Engineering, Vol.69, No.6, pp. 809-814, 2003 (in Japanese). https://doi.org/10.2493/jjspe.69.809
  8. [8] J. T. Alves, M. Guingard, and J. P. de Vaujany, “Designing and Manufacturing Spiral Bevel Gears Using 5-axis Computer Numerical Control (CNC) Milling Machines,” J. of Mechanical Design, Vol.135, No.2, Article No.024502, 2013. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4023153
  9. [9] J. Chaves-Jacob, G. Poulachon, and E. Duc, “Optimal Strategy for Finishing Impeller Blades Using 5-Axis Machining,” The Int. J. of Advanced Manufacturing, Vol.58, Nos.5-8, pp. 573-583, 2012. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-011-3424-1
  10. [10] Y. P. Shih, K. L. Lai, Z. H. Sun, and X. L. Yan, “Manufacture of Face-Milled Spiral Bevel Gears on a Five-Axis CNC Machine,” Proc. of the 14th IFToMM World Congress, pp. 328-335, 2015. https://doi.org/10.6567/IFToMM.14TH.WC.OS6.032
  11. [11] Y. P. Shih, Z. H. Sun, and K. L. Lai, “A Flank Correction Face-Milling Method for Bevel Gears Using a Five-Axis CNC Machine,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., Vol.91, pp. 3635-3652, 2017. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-017-0032-8
  12. [12] Á. Álvarez, A. Calleja, N. Ortega, and L. N. L. De Lacalle, “Five-Axis Milling of Large Spiral Bevel Gears: Toolpath Definition, Finishing, and Shape Errors,” Metals, Vol.8, No.5, Article No.353, 2018. https://doi.org/10.3390/met8050353
  13. [13] X. Z. Deng, G. G. Li, B. Y. Wei, and J. Deng, “Face-Milling Spiral Bevel Gear Tooth Surfaces by Application of 5-Axis CNC Machine Tool,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Tech., Vol.71, No.5, pp. 1049-1057, 2014. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-013-5499-3
  14. [14] T. Hirogaki, E. Aoyama, K. Ogawa, T. Kawaguchi, and T. Horiuchi, “Investigation on End-Mill Cutter Location Based on Constant Feed-Speed Vector at Cutting Point With a Five-Axis Machining Center,” J. of the Japan Society for Precision Engineering, Vol.76, No.8, pp. 912-917, 2010 (in Japanese). https://doi.org/10.1299/transjsme.16-00518
  15. [15] T. Hirogaki, “Effect of Simultaneous Control in Constant Direction of Feed at Cutting Point to Machined Two-Dimensional Line-Shapes,” Proc. of 2010 ISFA, JPL-2496, 2010.
  16. [16] T. Hirogaki, Y. Nakamura, T. Horiuchi, E. Aoyama, and K. Ogawa, “Optimization of Acceleration and Deceleration Processing Suited to Simultaneous Control With Five-Axis Machining Center,” Proc. of 15th Int. Conf. on Advances in Materials & Processing Technologies (2012 AMPT), 26768, 2012.
  17. [17] J. Vinvancos, C. J. Luis, J. A. Ortiz, and H. A. Gonzalez, “Analysis of Factors Affecting the High-Speed Side Milling of Hardened Die Steels,” J. of Materials Processing Technology, Vol.162, No.15, pp. 696-701, 2005. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2005.02.155
  18. [18] T. Horiuchi, T. Hirogaki, E. Aoyama, and K. Ogawa, “Effect of Simultaneous Control in Constant Direction of Feed at Cutting Point to Machined Two-Dimensional Line-Shapes,” Proc. of 2010 ISFA, JPL-2496, 2010.
  19. [19] T. Suzuki, Y. Maruyama, T. Hirogaki, and E. Aoyama, “Improvement of Machining Accuracy Under Constant Feed Speed at Milling Point With a Five Axis Controlled Machining Center Based on Advanced Control Method,” Trans. of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers, Series C, Vol.83, No.849, 2017 (in Japanese). https://doi.org/10.1299/transjsme.16-00518
  20. [20] R. Sato, Y. Yokobori, and M. Tutsumi, “Dynamic Synchronous Accuracy of Translational Axes and Rotational Axes in 5-Axis Machining Center,” J. of the Japan Society for Precision Engineering, Vol.72, No.1, pp. 73-78, 2006 (in Japanese). https://doi.org/10.2493/jjspe.72.52
  21. [21] T. Suzuki, K. Yoshikawa, T. Hirogaki, E. Aoyama, and T. Ikegami, “Improved Method for Synchronizing Motion Accuracy of Linear and Rotary Axes Under a Constant Feed Speed Vector at the Endmilling Point –Investigation of Motion Error Under Nc Commanded Motion–,” Int. J. of Automation Technol., Vol.13, No.5, pp. 679-690, 2019. https://doi.org/10.20965/ijat.2019.p0679
  22. [22] T. Suzuki, T. Hirogaki, and E. Aoyama, “Improved Method for Synchronous Accuracy of Linear and Rotary Axes Under a Constant Feed Speed Vector at the End Milling Point While Avoiding Torque Saturation,” Trans. of the Institute of Systems, Control and Information Engineers., Vol.36, No.8, pp. 233-242, 2023. https://doi.org/10.5687/iscie.36.233
  23. [23] T. Suzuki, S. Iwama, T. Hirogaki, and E. Aoyama, “Improvement of Machined Accuracy Under Constant Feed Speed at Milling Point with a Five Axis Controlled Machining Center Considering Approach Path,” Trans. of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers, Series C, Vol.86, No.889, 2020 (in Japanese). http://dx.doi.org/10.1299/transjsme.20-00175
  24. [24] Y. Kakino, H. Ohtsuka, H. Nakagawa, T. Hirogaki, and M. Sasaki, “A Study on Endmilling of Hardened Steel (1st Report)–Simplified Prediction Model for Cutting Forces and Control for Constant Cutting Forces Using This Model–,” J. of the Japan Society for Precision Engineering, Vol.66, No.5, pp. 730-734, 2000 (in Japanese). https://doi.org/10.2493/jjspe.66.730
  25. [25] H. Ohtsuka, Y. Kakino, A. Matsubara, H. Nakagawa, and T. Hirogaki, “A Study on End Milling of Hardened Steel (2nd Report)–Control for Constant Cutting Forces in Corner Profile End Milling Including Transitional Sections of Tool Paths–,” J. of the Japan Society for Precision Engineering, Vol.67, No.8, pp. 1294-1298, 2001 (in Japanese). https://doi.org/10.2493/jjspe.67.1294
  26. [26] H. Nakagawa, T. Hirogaki, M. Nakayama, H. Ohtsuka, and I. Yamaji, “High Precision Machining With Multi-Flute End-Mill on 5-Axis Controlled Machining Center –Achivement of Constant Cutting Force in Side Milling by Controlling Axial Depth of Cut–,” J. of the Japan Society for Precision Engineering, Vol.69, No.3, pp. 385-389, 2003 (in Japanese). https://doi.org/10.2493/jjspe.69.385
  27. [27] I. Nishida, R. Tsuyama, K. Shirase, M. Onishi, and K. Koarashi, “Development of Innovative Intelligent Machine Tool Based on CAM-CNC Integration Concept – Adaptive Control Based on Predicted Cutting Force –,” Int. J. of Automation Technol., Vol.13, No.3, pp. 373-381, 2019. https://doi.org/10.20965/ijat.2019.p0373
  28. [28] T. Hida, T. Asano, C. Higashino, M. Kanamaru, J. Kaneko, and Y. Takeuchi, “Development of Cutting Force Prediction Method Using Motion Information From CNC Controller,” Int. J. of Automation Technol., Vol.10, No.2, pp. 253-261, 2016. https://doi.org/10.20965/ijat.2016.p0253
  29. [29] J. N. Lee, H. L. Yeh, M. J. Shie, and T. H. Chen, “Improvement in the Efficiency of the Five-Axis Machining of Aerospace Blisks,” Science Progress, Vol.105, No.4, 2022. https://doi.org/10.1177/00368504221128776
  30. [30] T. H. Chen, J. N. Lee, M. H. Tsai, M. J. Shie, and C. Y. Lin, “Optimization of Milling Parameters Based on Five-Axis Machining for Centrifugal Impeller With Titanium Alloy,” J. of Physics: Conference Series, Vol.2345, No.1, Article No.012019, 2022. https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/2345/1/012019
  31. [31] A. Hartley, J. Schoop, F. Welzel, H. Frank, M. Schiffler, S. Marr, and A. Wirtz, “Opportunities and Challenges in Modelling of Machining Performance with Various Coatings and Lubricants in Inconel 718 Machining,” Procedia CIRP, Vol.117, pp. 462-467, 2023. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procir.2023.03.078
  32. [32] L. Bai, H. Liu, J. Zhang, and W. Zhao, “Real-Time Tool Breakage Monitoring Based on Dimensionless Indicators Under Time-Varying Cutting Conditions,” J. of the Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Vol.81, Article No.102502, 2023. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rcim.2022.102502
  33. [33] S. Junghans, M. Flehmke, J. Stützle, C. Möller, and J. Dege, “Enhancing Tool Replacement Decisions in Milling of Ti-6Al-4V Using Convolutional Neural Networks and Time-series-to-image Encoding,” Proc. of the Machining Innovations Conf. for Aerospace Industry (MIC) 2023, pp. 107-114, 2023.

*This site is desgined based on HTML5 and CSS3 for modern browsers, e.g. Chrome, Firefox, Safari, Edge, Opera.

Last updated on Jul. 19, 2024