IJAT Vol.17 No.6 pp. 583-593
doi: 10.20965/ijat.2023.p0583

Research Paper:

Effect of Pulse Conditions on Machining Characteristics in Bipolar-Pulse Electrochemical Machining of Cemented Carbide

Tomohiro Koyano*,† ORCID Icon, Taisei Hokin**, and Tatsuaki Furumoto*** ORCID Icon

*Institute of Science and Engineering, Kanazawa University
Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-1192, Japan

Corresponding author

**Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University
Kanazawa, Japan

***Advanced Manufacturing Technology Institute (AMTI), Kanazawa University
Kanazawa, Japan

May 31, 2023
October 2, 2023
November 5, 2023
electrochemical machining, cemented carbide, bipolar voltage, short pulse

Electrochemical machining was performed on two cemented carbides with different compositions using unipolar and bipolar short-pulse voltages to investigate the effects of the composition and pulse conditions on the machining characteristics. In the case of cemented carbides with high cobalt and low tungsten carbide (WC) contents, machining progressed even when a unipolar voltage was used. This is believed to be due to the dissolution of the binder, that is, Co, which causes the WC and WO3 particles to drop out. Machining progressed more easily when a bipolar voltage was used than when a unipolar voltage was used. This is attributed to the effective removal of WO3. The unevenness of the machined surface was also reduced with bipolar voltage. The negative pulse duration had to be sufficiently but appropriately long, because too long a duration increased the wear of the tool electrode. Even when bipolar pulse voltages were used, similar to the machining of general materials, a shorter positive pulse duration resulted in more precise machining. However, in the case of cemented carbide with low Co and high WC contents, the removal did not progress when a unipolar pulse voltage was applied. On the other hand, the machining progressed when a bipolar voltage was applied. However, if the positive pulse duration was excessively long, the amount of removal decreased. This is believed to be because the longer positive pulse duration increased the amount of WO3 generated, thereby inhibiting the current flow. Therefore, it is necessary to set an appropriate positive pulse duration to avoid the excessive production of WO3.

Cite this article as:
T. Koyano, T. Hokin, and T. Furumoto, “Effect of Pulse Conditions on Machining Characteristics in Bipolar-Pulse Electrochemical Machining of Cemented Carbide,” Int. J. Automation Technol., Vol.17 No.6, pp. 583-593, 2023.
Data files:
  1. [1] H. Klaasen and J. Kübarsepp, “Wear of advanced cemented carbides for metalforming tool materials,” Wear, Vol.256, Nos.7-8, pp. 846-853, 2004.
  2. [2] W. K. Chen, T. Kuriyagawa, H. Huang, and N. Yosihara, “Machining of micro aspherical mould inserts,” Precision Engineering, Vol.29, No.3, pp. 315-323, 2005.
  3. [3] H. Kato, N. Takase, K. Watanabe, T. Shikimura, and K. Kubota, “Cutting Performance of Coated Cemented Carbide Tool in Driven Rotary Cutting of Hardened Steel,” Int. J. Automation Technol., Vol.13, No.1, pp. 49-57, 2019.
  4. [4] F. Klocke, L. Chrubasik, A. Klink, and L. Hensgen, “Analysis of Fundamental Process Characteristics for Sinking-EDM of Cemented Carbides as a Function of Polarity,” Procedia CIRP, Vol.68, pp. 313-318, 2018.
  5. [5] H. Suzuki, M. Okada, K. Fujii, S. Matsui, and Y. Yamagata, “Development of micro milling tool made of single crystalline diamond for ceramic cutting,” CIRP Ann., Vol.62, No.1, pp. 59-62, 2013.
  6. [6] J. Fujiwara, K. Wakao, and T. Miyamoto, “Influence of Tungsten-Carbide and Cobalt on Tool Wear in Cutting of Cemented Carbides with Polycrystalline Diamond Tool,” Int. J. Automation Technol., Vol.7, No.4, pp. 433-438, 2013.
  7. [7] K. Nakamoto, T. Aoyama, K. Katahira, P. Fonda, and K. Yamazaki, “A Study of Nanometric Surface Generation on Tungsten Carbide Using a Micro Polycrystalline Diamond End Mill,” Int. J. Automation Technol., Vol.6, No.4, pp. 547-553, 2012.
  8. [8] A. M. N. Abang Kamaruddin, A. Hosokawa, T. Ueda, T. Furumoto, and T. Koyano, “Cutting performance of CBN and diamond tools in dry turning of cemented carbide,” Mechanical Engineering J., Vol.3, No.1, 15-00526, 2016.
  9. [9] K. Liu, X. P. Li, M. Rahman, and X. D. Liu, “CBN tool wear in ductile cutting of tungsten carbide,” Wear, Vol.255, Nos.7-12, pp. 1344-1351, 2003.
  10. [10] M. Okada, A. Yoshida, T. Furumoto, H. Watanabe, N. Asakawa, and M. Otsu, “Mechanisms and characteristics of direct cutting of tungsten carbide using a diamond-coated carbide end mill,” Int. J. Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol.86, No.5, pp. 1827-1839, 2016.
  11. [11] M. Okada, R. Suzuki, H. Watanabe, M. Otsu, and T. Miura, “Cutting Characteristics of Direct Milling of Cemented Tungsten Carbides Using Diamond-Coated Carbide End Mills with Untreated and Treated Cutting Edge,” Int. J. Automation Technol., Vol.13, No.1, pp. 58-66, 2019.
  12. [12] H. Suwa, S. Sakamoto, M. Nagata, K. Tezuka, and T. Samukawa, “Applicability of Diamond-Coated Tools for Ball End Milling of Sintered Tungsten Carbide,” Int. J. Automation Technol., Vol.14, No.1, pp. 18-25, 2020.
  13. [13] K. K. Saxena, J. Qian, and D. Reynaerts, “A review on process capabilities of electrochemical micromachining and its hybrid variants,” Int. J. Machine Tools and Manufacture, Vol.127, pp. 28-56, 2018.
  14. [14] S. Maeda, N. Saito, and Y. Haishi, “Principle and Characteristics of Electro-Chemical Machining,” Mitsubishi Denki Giho, Vol.41, No.10, pp. 12677-1279, 1967 (in Japanese).
  15. [15] Z. Liu, H. Nouraei, J. K. Spelt, and M. Papini, “Electrochemical slurry jet micro-machining of tungsten carbide with a sodium chloride solution,” Precision Engineering, Vol.40, pp. 189-198, 2015.
  16. [16] A. Goto, A. Nakata, S. Wang, and N. Saito, “Prevention of Material Deterioration in ECM of Sintered Carbide with Iron Ions,” Int. J. Automation Technol., Vol.11, No.1, pp. 67-73, 2017.
  17. [17] S. Wang, A. Goto, and A. Nakata, “Prevention of Material Deterioration in ECM of Sintered Carbide with Iron Ions (2nd Report),” Int. J. Automation Technol., Vol.11, No.5, pp. 829-834, 2017.
  18. [18] A. Goto, T. Moroi, M. Uematsu, N. Saito, N. Mohri, and T. Yuzawa, “Electrochemical machining of sintered carbide (1st report) – prevention of excessive co elution –,” J. Jpn. Soc. Elec. Mac. Eng., Vol.49, No.121, pp. 117-124, 2015 (in Japanese).
  19. [19] M. Hackert-Oschätzchen, A. Martin, G. Gunnar, M. Zinecker, and A. Schubert, “Microstructuring of carbide metals applying Jet Electrochemical Machining,” Precision Engineering, Vol.37, No.3, pp. 621-634, 2013.
  20. [20] N. Schubert, M. Schneider, and A. Michaelis, “Electrochemical machining of cemented carbides,” Int. J. Refractory Metals and Hard Materials, Vol.47, pp. 54-60, 2014.
  21. [21] K. Mizugai, N. Shibuya, and M. Kunieda, “Study on Electrolyte Jet Machining of Cemented Carbide,” Int. J. Electrical Machining, Vol.18, pp. 23-28, 2013.
  22. [22] T. Masuzawa and M. Kimura, “Electrochemical Surface Finishing of Tungsten Carbide Alloy,” CIRP Ann., Vo.40, No.1, pp. 199-202, 1991.
  23. [23] A. Goto, J. Chen, and K. Shirai, “Milling of Sintered Carbide via Electrochemical Reaction – Investigation of Machining Phenomena –,” Int. J. Automation Technol., Vol.16, No.6, pp. 862-869, 2022.
  24. [24] J. Xue, B. Dong, and Y. Zhao, “Significance of waveform design to achieve bipolar electrochemical jet machining of passivating material via regulation of electrode reaction kinetics,” Int. J. Machine Tools and Manufacture, Vol.177, 103886, 2022.
  25. [25] R. Schuster, V. Kirchner, P. Allongue, and G. Ertl, “Electrochemical Micromachining,” Science, Vol.289, No.5476, pp. 98-101, 2000.
  26. [26] B. J. Park, B. H. Kim, and C. N. Chu, “The Effects of Tool Electrode Size on Characteristics of Micro Electrochemical Machining,” CIRP Ann., Vol.55, No.1, pp. 197-200, 2006.
  27. [27] T. Koyano, A. Hosokawa, T. Takahashi, and T. Ueda, “One-process surface texturing of a large area by electrochemical machining with short voltage pulses,” CIRP Ann., Vol.68, No.1, pp. 181-184, 2019.
  28. [28] T. Geethapriyan, V. Thulasikanth, V. Singh, A. C. Arun Raj, T. Lakshmanan, and A. Chaudhury, “Performance characteristics of electrochemical micro machining of tungsten carbide,” Materials Today: Proc., Vol.27, No.3, pp. 2381-2384, 2020.
  29. [29] T. Abe, T. Masaki, T. Wada, and T. Masuzawa, “Study on Micro-ECM with Short Pulses,” J. Jpn. Soc. Elec. Mac. Eng., Vol.40, No.93, pp. 29-35, 2006 (in Japanese).

*This site is desgined based on HTML5 and CSS3 for modern browsers, e.g. Chrome, Firefox, Safari, Edge, Opera.

Last updated on Nov. 24, 2023