IJAT Vol.17 No.4 pp. 346-355
doi: 10.20965/ijat.2023.p0346

Research Paper:

Influence of Oxygen Concentration in Building Environment and Oxidation Extent of Maraging Steel on Spatter Generation Behavior in Powder Bed Fusion

Mitsugu Yamaguchi*,†, Kotaro Tsubouchi**, Asako Kamimoto***, Shinnosuke Yamada***, Kenji Sugiyama***, and Tatsuaki Furumoto* ORCID Icon

*Advanced Manufacturing Technology Institute (AMTI), Kanazawa University
Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-1192, Japan

Corresponding author

**Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University
Kanazawa, Japan

***Corporate Research & Development Center, Daido Steel Co., Ltd.
Nagoya, Japan

February 2, 2023
March 28, 2023
July 5, 2023
additive manufacturing, powder bed fusion, maraging steel, building environment, spatter generation behavior

This study investigated the influence of oxygen concentration in the building environment and the degree of oxidation of maraging steel powder on spatter generation behavior during powder bed fusion (PBF) process. The powders were oxidized at various heat treatment temperatures, and their degree of oxidation was evaluated using Auger electron spectroscopy. The spatter generation behavior of the powders at oxygen concentrations of 1.0×102 ppm (99.99% purity) to 5.0×104 ppm (95% purity) in the building atmosphere was then investigated. The results indicated that the presence of oxygen in the building environment had a greater effect on spatter generation than the oxide film on the maraging steel powder. The oxygen concentration affected the velocity and angle of spatter particles. At an oxygen concentration of 5.0×104 ppm, the number of spatter particles was 2.5 times greater than that of 1.0×102 ppm. A higher oxygen concentration resulted in an increase in the number of fume particles adhering to the spatter surface, reducing its reusability. The oxide film on the powder did not significantly affect the vapor jet behavior, but it altered the powder’s flowability, impacting the spatter generation. To decrease spatter generation and obtain a high-quality spatter surface, it is recommended that the oxygen concentration in the building environment should be maintained at 1.0×102 ppm.

Cite this article as:
M. Yamaguchi, K. Tsubouchi, A. Kamimoto, S. Yamada, K. Sugiyama, and T. Furumoto, “Influence of Oxygen Concentration in Building Environment and Oxidation Extent of Maraging Steel on Spatter Generation Behavior in Powder Bed Fusion,” Int. J. Automation Technol., Vol.17 No.4, pp. 346-355, 2023.
Data files:
  1. [1] S. Floreen, “The physical metallurgy of maraging steels,” Metall. Rev., Vol.13, No.1, pp. 115-128, 1968.
  2. [2] B. Rohit and N. R. Muktinutalapati, “Austenite reversion in 18% Ni maraging steel and its weldments,” Mater. Sci. Technol., Vol.34, No.3, pp. 253-260, 2018.
  3. [3] K. Rohrbach and M. Schmidt, “Maraging Steels,” ASM Handbook Committee (Ed.), “Properties and Selection: Irons, Steels, and High-Performance Alloys,” ASM Handbook, Vol.1, pp. 793-800, ASM International, 1990.
  4. [4] V. K. Vasudevan, S. J. Kim, and C. M. Wayman, “Precipitation reactions and strengthening behavior in 18 Wt Pct nickel maraging steels,” Metall. Trans. A, Vol.21, No.10, pp. 2655-2668, 1990.
  5. [5] F. H. Lang and N. Kenyon, “Welding of Maraging Steels,” WRC Bulletin, Article No.159, 1971.
  6. [6] W. M. Garrison and M. K. Banerjee, “Martensitic Non-Stainless Steels: High Strength and High Alloy,” Reference Module in Materials Science and Materials Engineering, 2018.
  7. [7] T. Fukunaga and H. Narahara, “Simplified prediction of melt pool shape in metal additive manufacturing using maraging steel,” Int. J. Automation Technol., Vol.16, No.5, pp. 609-614, 2022.
  8. [8] K. Egashira, T. Furumoto, K. Hishida, S. Abe, T. Koyano, Y. Hashimoto, and A. Hosokawa, “Formation mechanism of pores inside structure fabricated by metal-based additive manufacturing,” Int. J. Automation Technol., Vol.13, No.3, pp. 330-337, 2019.
  9. [9] L. Guo, L. Zhang, J. Andersson, and O. Ojo, “Additive manufacturing of 18% nickel maraging steels: Defect, structure and mechanical properties: A review,” J. Mater. Sci. Technol., Vol.120, pp. 227-252, 2022.
  10. [10] S. Li, B. Chen, C. Tan, and X. Song, “Effects of oxygen content on microstructure and mechanical properties of 18Ni300 maraging steel manufactured by laser directed energy deposition,” Opt. Laser Technol., Vol.153, Article No.108281, 2022.
  11. [11] M. Schmidt, M. Merklein, D. Bourell, D. Dimitrov, T. Hausotte, K. Wegener, L. Overmeyer, F. Vollertsen, and G. N. Levy, “Laser based additive manufacturing in industry and academia,” CIRP Ann. Manuf. Technol., Vol.66, No.2, pp. 561-583, 2017.
  12. [12] B. Mooney and K. I. Kourousis, “A review of factors affecting the mechanical properties of maraging steel 300 fabricated via laser powder bed fusion,” Metals, Vol.10, No.9, Article No.1273, 2020.
  13. [13] K. Kempen, E. Yasa, L. Thijs, J.-P. Kruth, and J. van Humbeeck, “Microstructure and mechanical properties of selective laser melted 18Ni-300 steel,” Phys. Procedia, Part A, Vol.12, pp. 255-263, 2011.
  14. [14] L. Thijs, J. V. Humbeeck, K. Kempen, E. Yasa, J. Kruth, and M. Rombouts, “Investigation on the inclusions in maraging steel produced by selective laser melting,” Innovat. Develop. Virtual Phys. Prototyp., pp. 297-304, 2012.
  15. [15] X. Xu, J. Ding, S. Ganguly, C. Diao, and S. Williams, “Oxide accumulation effects on wire + arc layer-by-layer additive manufacture process,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol.252, pp. 739-750, 2018.
  16. [16] P. Y. Shcheglov, S. A. Uspenskiy, A. V. Gumenyuk, V. N. Petrovskiy, M. Rethmeier, and V. M. Yermachenko, “Plume attenuation of laser radiation during high power fiber laser welding,” Laser Phys. Lett., Vol.8, No.6, pp. 475-480, 2011.
  17. [17] Y. Liu, Y. Yang, S. Mai, D. Wang, and C. Song, “Investigation into spatter behavior during selective laser melting of AISI 316L stainless steel powder,” Mater. Des., Vol.87, No.15, pp. 797-806, 2015.
  18. [18] M. Simonelli, C. Tuck, N. T. Aboulkhair, I. Maskery, I. Ashcroft, R. D. Wildman, and R. Hague, “A study on the laser spatter and the oxidation reactions during selective laser melting of 316L stainless steel, Al-Si10-Mg, and Ti-6Al-4V,” Metall. Mater. Trans. A, Vol.46, No.9, pp. 3842-3851, 2015.
  19. [19] C. L. A. Leung, S. Marussi, M. Towrie, R. C. Atwood, P. J. Withers, and P. D. Lee, “The effect of powder oxidation on defect formation in laser additive manufacturing,” Acta Mater., Vol.166, pp. 294-305, 2019.
  20. [20] L. Kaserer, S. Bergmueller, J. Braun, and G. Leichtfried, “Vacuum laser powder bed fusion – track consolidation, powder denudation, and future potential,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., Vol.110, No.11, pp. 3339-3346, 2020.
  21. [21] T. Furumoto, K. Egashira, K. Oishi, S. Abe, M. Yamaguchi, Y. Hashimoto, T. Koyano, and A. Hosokawa, “Experimental investigation into the spatter particle behavior of maraging steel during selective laser melting,” J. Adv. Mech. Des. Syst. Manuf., Vol.15, No.4, Article No.20-00349, 2021.
  22. [22] J. Y. S. Tay, C. V. Liew, and P. W. S. Heng, “Powder flow testing: Judicious choice of test methods,” AAPS PharmSciTech, Vol.18, No.5, pp. 1843-1854, 2017.
  23. [23] R. Fabbro, S. Slimani, I. Doudet, F. Coste, and F. Briand, “Experimental study of the dynamical coupling between the induced vapour plume and the melt pool for Nd–Yag CW laser welding,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., Vol.39, No.2, pp. 394-400, 2006.
  24. [24] S. Ly, A. M. Rubenchik, S. A. Khairallah, G. Guss, and M. J. Matthews, “Metal vapor micro-jet controls material redistribution in laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing,” Sci. Rep., Vol.7, No.1, Article No.4085, 2017.
  25. [25] K. Chen, Y. L. Yao, and V. Modi, “Numerical Simulation of oxidation effects in the laser cutting process,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., Vol.15, No.11, pp. 835-842, 1999.
  26. [26] P. Hellwig, K. Schricker, and J. P. Bergmann, “Effect of reduced ambient pressure and atmospheric composition on material removal mechanisms of steel and aluminum by means of high-speed laser processing,” Procedia CIRP, Vol.94, pp. 487-492, 2020.
  27. [27] X. Cai, C. Fan, S. Lin, C. Yang, L. Hu, and X. Ji, “Effects of shielding gas composition on arc behaviors and weld formation in narrow gap tandem GMAW,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., Vol.91, No.9, pp. 3449-3456, 2017.
  28. [28] J. Brillo, J. Wessing, H. Kobatake, and H. Fukuyama, “Surface tension of liquid Ti with adsorbed oxygen and its prediction,” J. Mol. Liq., Vol.290, Article No.111226, 2019.
  29. [29] S. A. Khairallah, A. T. Anderson, A. Rubenchik, and W. E. King, “Laser powder-bed fusion additive manufacturing: Physics of complex melt flow and formation mechanisms of pores, spatter, and denudation zones,” Acta Materi., Vol.108, pp. 36-45, 2016.
  30. [30] K. Tsubouchi, T. Furumoto, M. Yamaguchi, A. Ezura, S. Yamada, M. Osaki, and K. Sugiyama, “Evaluation of spatter particles, metal vapour jets, and depressions considering influence of laser incident angle on melt pool behaviour,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol. Vol.120, pp. 1821-1830, 2022.
  31. [31] F. Rouquerol, J. Rouquerol, K. S. W. Sing, G. Maurin, and P. Llewellyn, “Adsorption by Powders and Porous Solids,” Second Edition, pp. 1-24, Academic Press, 2014.
  32. [32] W. Zhou, N. Takase, M. Dong, N. Watanabe, S. Guo, Z. Zhou, and N. Nomura, “Elucidating the impact of severe oxidation on the powder properties and laser melting behaviors,” Mater. Des., Vol.221, Article No.110959, 2022.
  33. [33] K. Tsubouchi, T. Furumoto, and M. Yamaguchi, “Improving flowability of metal powder by adding silica nanoparticles and its building aspect in powder bed fusion with laser beam,” J. Jpn. Soc. Precis. Eng., Vol.88, No.5, pp. 415-419, 2022 (in Japanese).

*This site is desgined based on HTML5 and CSS3 for modern browsers, e.g. Chrome, Firefox, Safari, Edge, Opera.

Last updated on Sep. 29, 2023