IJAT Vol.16 No.6 pp. 773-782
doi: 10.20965/ijat.2022.p0773


Challenges of Remanufacturing Using Powder Bed Fusion Based Additive Manufacturing

Naoko Sato, Mitsutaka Matsumoto, Hisato Ogiso, and Harumichi Sato

Advanced Manufacturing Research Institute (AMRI), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST)
1-2-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8564, Japan

Corresponding author

May 2, 2022
July 15, 2022
November 5, 2022
remanufacturing, metal-based additive manufacturing, powder bed fusion, parts reliability, microstructure

Remanufacturing is an industrial process of turning used products into products with the same quality as new ones. Of the processes comprising remanufacturing, the repair process poses the greatest challenge. Additive manufacturing (AM) is expected to bring innovation to the repair process of remanufacturing. Although, so far, the directed energy deposition (DED) type AM has been most frequently applied to remanufacturing and only a few studies applied powder bed fusion (PBF) type AM to remanufacturing, PBF demonstrates great potential for application in remanufacturing. This study aims to assess the feasibility of the application of PBF to remanufacturing. We conducted an experimental PBF-based repair and attempted to identify its challenges. In the experiment, 1) we used AlSi10Mg powder, 2) we first fabricated a 5 mm square cube sample by using PBF, 3) we next removed 0.4 mm of thickness from the sample with milling, 4) then we restored 0.44 mm of thickness using PBF, and 5) we observed the restored sample. The observation showed that: 1) misalignment in the restoration occurred, 2) keyhole defects and gas pores were found more in the boundary area between the original and restored parts, and 3) the microstructures showed polycrystals in the restored part. These factors impaired the quality and reliability of PBF-based repair and present challenges of enhancing the feasibility of applying PBF-based repair to remanufacturing. This study also examined the whole process of PBF-based remanufacturing, which includes not only the repair process but also the processes of component inspection, process design, pre-repair process, and post-repair process, and discussed the challenges in these processes. The challenges include the development of repair process design methods, supportless fabrication processes, and non-destructive test (NDT) techniques.

Cite this article as:
N. Sato, M. Matsumoto, H. Ogiso, and H. Sato, “Challenges of Remanufacturing Using Powder Bed Fusion Based Additive Manufacturing,” Int. J. Automation Technol., Vol.16 No.6, pp. 773-782, 2022.
Data files:
  1. [1] R. Giutini and K. Gaudette, “Remanufacturing: the next great opportunity for boosting US productivity,” Bus. Horiz., Vol.46, No.6, pp. 41-48, 2003.
  2. [2] S. Kandukuri, E. E. Günay, O. Al-Araidah, and G. E. Okudan Kremer, “Inventive solutions for remanufacturing using additive manufacturing: ETRIZ,” J. Clean. Prod., Vol.305, 126992, 2021.
  3. [3] M. Matsumoto, S. S. Yang, K. Martinsen, and Y. Kainuma, “Trends and research challenges in remanufacturing,” Int. J. Precis. Eng. Manuf. – Green Technol., Vol.3, No.1, pp. 129-142, 2016.
  4. [4] D. G. Ahn, “Direct metal additive manufacturing processes and their sustainable applications for green technology: A review,” Int. J. Precis. Eng. Manuf. – Green Technol., Vol.3, pp. 381-395, 2016.
  5. [5] W. D. A. Rahito and A. H. Azman, “Additive manufacturing for repair and restoration in remanufacturing: An overview from object design and systems perspectives,” Processes, Vol.7, 802, 2019.
  6. [6] R. P. Mudge and N. Wald, “Laser engineered net shaping advances additive manufacturing and repair,” Welding J., Vol.86, No.1, pp. 58-63, 2007.
  7. [7] J. M. Wilson, C. Piya, Y. C. Shin, F. Zhao, and K. Ramani, “Remanufacturing of turbine blades by laser directive deposition with its energy and environmental impact analysis,” J. Clean. Prod. Vol.80, pp. 170-178, 2014.
  8. [8] T. Petrat, B. Graf, A. Gumenyuk, and M. Rethmeier, “Laser metal deposition as repair technology for a gas turbine burner made of Inconel 718,” Phys. Procedia., Vol.73, pp. 761-768, 2016.
  9. [9] G. Payne, A. Ahmad, S. Fitzpatrick, P. Xirouchakis, W. Ion, and M. Wilson, “Remanufacturing H13 steel moulds and dies using laser metal deposition,” Proc. of the 14th Int. Conf. on Manufacturing Research, pp. 93-98, 2016.
  10. [10] O. Andersson, A. Graichen, H. Brodin, and V. Navrotsky, “Developing additive manufacturing technology for burner repair,” J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power., Vol.139, No.3, 031506, 2017.
  11. [11] Y. A. Zghair and R. Lachmayer, “Additive repair design approach: case study to repair aluminium base components,” Proc. of the 21st Int. Conf. on Engineering Design (ICED17), Vol.5, pp. 141-150, 2017.
  12. [12] G. R. Buican, G. Oancea, and A. Manolescu, “Remanufacturing of damaged parts using selective laser melting technology,” Appl. Mech. Mater., Vol.693, pp. 285-290, 2014.
  13. [13] W. Li, K. Yang, S. Yin, X. Yang, Y. Xu, and R. Lupoi, “Solid-state additive manufacturing and repairing by cold spraying: A review,” J. Mater. Sci. Technol., Vol.34, No.3, pp. 440-457, 2018.
  14. [14] R. Raju, M. Duraiselvam, V. Petley, S. Verma, and R. Rajendran, “Microstructural and mechanical characterization of Ti6Al4V refurbished parts obtained by laser metal deposition,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A, Vol.643, pp. 64-71, 2015.
  15. [15] M. B. Kumar and P. Sathiya, “Methods and materials for additive manufacturing: A critical review on advancements and challenges,” Thin-Walled Struct., Vol.159, 107228, 2021.
  16. [16] H. Liu, Z. Hu, X. Qin, Y. Wang, J. Zhang, and S. Huang, “Parameter optimization and experimental study of the sprocket repairing using laser cladding,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., Vol.91, pp. 3967-3975, 2017.
  17. [17] X. Lei, C. Huajun, L. Hailong, and Z. Yubo, “Study on laser cladding remanufacturing process with FeCrNiCu alloy powder for thin-wall impeller blade,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., Vol.90, pp. 1383-1392, 2017.
  18. [18] S. Nakano, M. Hagiwara, T. Shimizu, Y. Horiba, N. Sato, K. Matsuzaki, and M. Sassa, “Novel selective laser melting solution for metal additive manufacturing using vacuum and a quasi continuous wave laser,” Proc. of Int. Conf. on Leading Edge Manufacturing in 21st century: LEM21, pp. 419-422, doi: 10.1299/jsmelem.2013.7.419, 2013.
  19. [19] G. Petzow, “Metallographisches Ätzen,” Gebrüder Borntraeger, 1976.
  20. [20] S. Feng, S. Chen, A. M. Kamat, R. Zhang, M. Huang, and L. Hu, “Investigation on shape deviation of horizontal interior circular channels fabricated by laser powder bed fusion,” Addit. Manuf., Vol.36, 101585, doi: 10.1016/J.ADDMA.2020.101585, 2020.
  21. [21] W. E. King, H. D. Barth, V. M. Castillo, G. F. Gallegos, J. W. Gibbs, D. E. Hahn, C. Kamath, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Observation of keyhole-mode laser melting in laser powder-bed fusion additive manufacturing,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol.214, No.2, pp. 2915-2925, doi:10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2014.06.005, 2014.
  22. [22] S. Patel and M. Vlasea, “Melting modes in laser powder bed fusion,” Materialia, Vol.9, doi: 10.1016/J.MTLA.2020.100591, 2020.
  23. [23] C. Weingarten, D. Buchbinder, N. Pirch, W. Meiners, K. Wissenbach, and R. Poprawe, “Formation and reduction of hydrogen porosity during selective laser melting of AlSi10Mg,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., Vol.221, pp. 112-120, doi: 10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2015.02.013, 2015.
  24. [24] L. Thijs, K. Kempen, J.-P. Kruth, and J. Van Humbeeck, “Fine-structured aluminum products with controllable texture by selective laser melting of pre-alloyed AlSi10Mg powder,” Acta Mater., Vol.61, No.5, pp. 1809-1819, doi: 10.1016/j.actamat.2012.11.052, 2013.
  25. [25] P. Fernandez-Zelaia, M. M. Kirka, A. M. Rossy, Y. Lee, and S. N. Dryepondt, “Nickel-based superalloy single crystals fabricated via electron beam melting,” Acta Mater., Vol.216, 117133, doi: 10.1016/J.ACTAMAT.2021.117133, 2021.
  26. [26] E. Bassoli, A. Sola, M. Celesti, S. Calcagnile, and C. Cavallini, “Development of laser-based powder bed fusion process parameters and scanning strategy for new metal alloy grades: A holistic method formulation,” Materials, Vol.11, No.12, 2356, doi:10.3390/ma11122356, 2018.
  27. [27] K. Egashira, T. Furumoto, K. Hishida, S. Abe, T. Koyano, Y. Hashimoto, and A. Hosokawa, “Formation mechanism of pores inside structure fabricated by metal-based additive manufacturing,” Int. J. Automation Technol., Vol.13, No.3, pp. 330-337, 2019.
  28. [28] H. Sato, H. Ogiso, Y. Yamashita, and Y. Funada, “Laser ultrasonic technique to non-destructively detect cracks on a Ni-based self-fluxing alloy fabricated using directed energy deposition (DED),” Mater. Trans., Vol.61, No.10, pp. 1994-2001, 2020.

*This site is desgined based on HTML5 and CSS3 for modern browsers, e.g. Chrome, Firefox, Safari, Edge, Opera.

Last updated on May. 19, 2024