Quasi-Static Compliance Calibration of Serial Articulated Industrial Manipulators
Nikolas Alexander Theissen*,, Monica Katherine Gonzalez*, Asier Barrios**, and Andreas Archenti*,***
*Manufacturing and Metrology Systems Division, Department of Production Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology
68 Brinellvägen, Stockholm 10044, Sweden
**IDEKO S.COOP, Elgoibar, Spain
***Industrial Dependability Division, Department of Sustainable Production Development, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Södertälje, Sweden
This article presents a procedure for the quasi-static compliance calibration of serial articulated industrial manipulators. Quasi-static compliance refers to the apparent stiffness displayed by manipulators at low-velocity movements, i.e., from 50 to 250 mm/s. The novelty of the quasi-static compliance calibration procedure lies in the measurement phase, in which the quasi-static deflections of the manipulator’s end effector are measured under movement along a circular trajectory. The quasi-static stiffness might be a more applicable model parameter, i.e., representing the actual manipulator more accurately, for manipulators at low-velocity movements. This indicates that the quasi-static robot model may yield more accurate estimates for the trajectory optimization compared with static stiffness in the implementation phase. This study compares the static and apparent quasi-static compliance. The static deflections were measured at discretized static configurations along circular trajectories, whereas the quasi-static deflections were measured under circular motion along the same trajectories. Loads of different magnitudes were induced using the Loaded Double Ball Bar. The static and quasi-static displacements were measured using a linear variable differential transformer embedded in the Loaded Double Ball Bar and a Leica AT901 laser tracker. These measurement procedures are implemented in a case study on a large serial articulated industrial manipulator in five different positions of its workspace. This study shows that the measured quasi-static deflections are bigger than the measured static deflections. This, in turn, indicates a significant difference between the static and apparent quasi-static compliance. Finally, the implementation of the model parameters to improve the accuracy of robots and the challenges in realizing cost-efficient compliance calibration are discussed.
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