IJAT Vol.15 No.4 pp. 431-447
doi: 10.20965/ijat.2021.p0431


Analytical Model for Studying the Influence of Thickness on the Protective Effect

Xiaoqi Song*,†, Yukio Takahashi*, Weiming He**, and Tohru Ihara*

*Department of Precision Mechanics, Chuo University
1-13-27 Kasuga, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8551, Japan

Corresponding author

**School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai, China

January 12, 2021
June 1, 2021
July 5, 2021
cutting, built-up layer, built-up edge, tool protective effect, equivalent inclusion method

This paper presents an analytical model to study the influence of the thickness of the built-up layer (BUL) / built-up edge (BUE) on its protective effect during cutting. A new elastic-plastic contact model at the tool-chip interface is proposed to analyze the sliding contact problem with a layer of adhesion (including the BUL and BUE). The equivalent inclusion method (EIM) is utilized to analyze the stress disturbance caused by the adhesion and to evaluate the protective effect of the adhesion. In this method, the adhesion is considered as an equivalent elliptical inclusion at the tool-chip interface. The protective effect of the adhesion and the influence of the adhesion thickness on its protective effect can be evaluated. The proposed analytical model was verified based on experimental data obtained from dry cutting of SUS304 stainless steel. From the results, it can be confirmed that BUL/BUE can protect the cutting tool by affecting the stress distributions in the tool, the positions of yield initiation, and the tangential force acting on the tool. It can also be concluded that a greater thickness improves the protective effect of the BUL/BUE. Furthermore, the proposed model can also provide a clear understanding of the BUL/BUE formation phenomenon.

Cite this article as:
Xiaoqi Song, Yukio Takahashi, Weiming He, and Tohru Ihara, “Analytical Model for Studying the Influence of Thickness on the Protective Effect,” Int. J. Automation Technol., Vol.15, No.4, pp. 431-447, 2021.
Data files:
  1. [1] N. Tomac, K. Tonnessen, F. O. Rasch, and T. Mikac, “A study of factors that affect the built-up material formation,” AMST’05, CISM Courses and Lectures, Vol.486, pp. 183-192, 2005.
  2. [2] T. H. C. Childs, “Ductile shear failure damage modelling and predicting built-up edge in steel machining,” J. of Materials Processing Technology, Vol.213, No.11, pp. 1954-1969, 2013.
  3. [3] K. Hoshi and T. Hoshi, “Metal cutting technology,” Kogyo Chosakai Publishing Co., Ltd., 1981 (in Japanese).
  4. [4] X. Song, Y. Takahashi, and T. Ihara, “Prediction of built-up layer and built-up edge formation in dry cutting of SUS304 stainless steel,” Int. J. Automation Technol., Vol.13, No.1, pp. 13-21, 2019.
  5. [5] X. Song, Y. Takahashi, and T. Ihara, “Investigating the self-protective tool formation during cutting of titanium alloy,” Proc. of 33rd ASPE Annual Meeting, Vol.70, pp. 329-334, 2018.
  6. [6] X. Song, Y. Takahashi, and T. Ihara, “Influence of built-up layer on the wear mechanisms of uncoated and coated carbide tools during dry cutting of Inconel 718,” J. of the Japan Society for Precision Engineering, Vol.85, No.10, pp. 856-865, 2019.
  7. [7] X. Song, Y. Takahashi, W. He, and T. Ihara, “Study on the protective effect of built-up layer in dry cutting of stainless steel SUS304,” Precision Engineering, Vol.65, pp. 138-148, 2020.
  8. [8] J. Kümmel, J. Gibmeier, E. Müller, R. Schneider, V. Schulze, and A. Wanner, “Detailed analysis of microstructure of intentionally formed built-up edges for improving wear behaviour in dry metal cutting process of steel,” Wear, Vol.311, No.1-2, pp. 21-30, 2014.
  9. [9] S. N. B. Oliaei and Y. Karpat, “Investigating the influence of built-up edge on forces and surface roughness in micro scale orthogonal machining of titanium alloy Ti6Al4V,” J. of Materials Processing Technology, Vol.235, pp. 28-40, 2016.
  10. [10] Y. S. Ahmed, G. Fox-Rabinovich, J. M. Paiva, T. Wagg, and S. C. Veldhuis, “Effect of built-up edge formation during stable state of wear in AISI 304 stainless steel on machining performance and surface integrity of the machined part,” Materials, Vol.10, No.11, 1230, 2017.
  11. [11] E. M. Trent and P. K. Wright, “Metal Cutting (4th edition),” Butterworth-Heinemann, 2000.
  12. [12] M. C. Shaw, “Metal Cutting Principles (2nd edition),” Oxford University Press, 2005.
  13. [13] X. Song, Y. Takahashi, W. He, and T. Ihara, “Effects of the size of built-up layer on the wear of cemented carbide tools in cutting of SUS304 stainless steel,” Proc. of Leading Edge Manufacturing/Materials & Processing (LEMP2020), 8549, 2020.
  14. [14] X. Song, Y. Takahashi, W. He, and T. Ihara, “Investigation on the nucleus formation mechanisms of Built-up layer in cutting of hardened steel,” J. of the Japan Society for Precision Engineering, Vol.83, No.5, pp. 445-452, 2017 (in Japanese).
  15. [15] T. H. C. Childs, K. Maekawa, T. Obikawa, and Y. Yamane, “Metal Machining: Theory and Applications,” Arnold, 2000.
  16. [16] S. Bahi, G. List, and G. Sutter, “Analysis of adhered contacts and boundary conditions of the secondary shear zone,” Wear, Vol.330-331, pp. 608-617, 2015.
  17. [17] T. Ihara, “Usefulness of adhesion/BUE during cutting,” Science of Machine, Vol.66, No.10, pp. 825-832, 2014 (in Japanese).
  18. [18] T. Ihara, X. Song, and Y. Takahashi, “Frictional stress derived on interface between work and tool materials on quasi-dislocation model for cutting simulations,” Int. J. Automation Technol., Vol.13, No.1, pp. 6-12, 2019.
  19. [19] J. D. Eshelby, “The determination of the elastic field of an ellipsoidal inclusion, and related problems,” Proc. of the Royal Society of London Series A: Mathematical and Physical Sciences, Vol.241, pp. 376-396, 1957.
  20. [20] T. Mura, “Micromechanics of Defects in Solids (2nd edition),” Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1987.
  21. [21] W. W. Chen, K. Zhou, L. M. Keer, and Q. J. Wang, “Modeling elasto-plastic indentation on layered materials using the equivalent inclusion method,” Int. J. of Solids and Structures, Vol.47, pp. 2841-2854, 2010.
  22. [22] C. Jacq, D. Nelias, G. Lormand, and D. Girodin, “Development of a three-dimensional semi-analytical elastic-plastic contact code,” J. of Tribology, Vol.24, pp. 653-667, 2002.
  23. [23] J. Dundurs and T. Mura, “Interaction between an edge dislocation and a circular inclusion,” J. of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, Vol.12, No.3, pp. 177-189, 1964.
  24. [24] M. H. Santare and L. M. Keer, “Interaction between an edge dislocation and a rigid elliptical inclusion,” J. of Applied Mechanics, Vol.53, No.2, pp. 382-385, 1986.
  25. [25] Z. Li, Y. Li, J. Sun, and X. Q. Feng, “An approximate continuum theory for interaction between dislocation and inhomogeneity of any shape and properties,” J. of Applied Physics, Vol.109, 113529, 2011.
  26. [26] K. L. Johnson, “Contact Mechanics,” Cambridge University Press, 1985.
  27. [27] D. Hull and D. J. Bacon, “Introduction to dislocation (5th edition),” Butterworth-Heinemann, 2011.
  28. [28] G. A. D. Briggs and B. J. Briscoe, “How rubber grips and slips- Schallamach waves and the friction of elastomers,” Philosophical Magazine A, Vol.38, No.4, pp. 387-399, 1978.
  29. [29] J. E. Raynolds, J. R. Smith, G.-L. Zhao, and D. J. Srolovitz, “Adhesion in NiAl-Cr from first principles,” Physical Review B, Vol.53, No.20, pp. 13883-13890, 1996.
  30. [30] E. Usui and K. Hoshi, “Study on tools with restricted tool-chip contact length (part 4) – Natural and cut-away tool’s built-up edges,” J. of the Japan Society for Precision Engineering, Vol.30, No.350, pp. 273-284, 1964 (in Japanese).
  31. [31] X. Song, H. Fujita, Y. Takahashi, W. He, and T. Ihara, “Thermo-mechanical modeling of the stress state in the chip formation zone considering the built-up layer and built-up edge formation,” Proc. of ICPE2020, No.B-1-13, pp. 68-69, 2020.
  32. [32] T. Kitagawa, T. Shirakashi, and E. Usui, “Characteristic equation of crater wear – Study on analytical prediction of cutting tool life (1st Report) –,” J. of the Japan Society of Precision Engineering, Vol.42, No.504, pp. 1178-1183, 1976.
  33. [33] H. Ernst and M. E. Merchant, “Chip formation, friction and finish,” Cincinnati milling machine Company, 1941.
  34. [34] M. Lotfi, S. Amini, and S. A. Sajjady, “Development of a friction model based on oblique cutting theory,” Int. J. of Mechanical Sciences, Vol.160, pp. 241-254, 2019.
  35. [35] T. Teppernegg, T. Klunsner, C. Kremsner, C. Tritremmel, C. Czettl, S. Puchegger, S. Marsoner, R. Pippan, and R. Ebner, “High temperature mechanical properties of WC-Co hard metals,” Int. J. of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials, Vol.56, pp. 139-144, 2016.
  36. [36] H. B. He, H. Y. Li, J. Yang, X. Y. Zhang, Q. B. Yue, X. Jiang, and S. Lyu, “A study on major factors influencing dry cutting temperature of AISI 304 stainless steel,” Int. J. of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing, Vol.18, No.10, pp. 1387-1392, 2017.

*This site is desgined based on HTML5 and CSS3 for modern browsers, e.g. Chrome, Firefox, Safari, Edge, Opera.

Last updated on Aug. 03, 2021