Localization System for Indoor Mobile Robot Using Large Square-Shaped Reflective Marker
Hiroaki Seki*,, Ken Kawai**, and Masatoshi Hikizu***
*Faculty of Frontier Engineering, Kanazawa University
Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-1192, Japan
**Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Japan
***Faculty of Production Systems Engineering and Sciences, Komatsu University, Komatsu, Japan
A localization system using reflective markers and a fisheye camera with blinking infrared lights is useful and safe for mobile robot navigation in an environment with coexisting humans and robots; however, it has the problems of low robustness and a small measurable range for marker detection. A large, square-shaped reflective marker, with solid and dotted edges, is proposed for more reliable localization of indoor mobile robots. It can be easily detected using Hough transform and is robust for occlusion. The coordinates of the four corners of the square-shaped marker determine the robot’s localization. Infrared lighting with a new LED arrangement is designed for a wide measurable range via brightness simulation, including the effect of observation and reflection angles. A prototype system was developed, enabling the 2D position and orientation to be detected with an accuracy of 60 mm and 3◦, respectively, within a 4 m2 area.
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