Tool Path Generation for 5-Axis Rough Cutting Using Haptic Device
Koichi Morishige*, and Satoshi Mori**
*Department of Mechanical Engineering and Intelligent Systems, Graduate School of Informatics and Engineering,
The University of Electro-Communications
1-5-1 Chofugaoka, Chofu, Tokyo 182-8585, Japan
**Department of Mechanical Engineering and Intelligent Systems, Faculty of Informatics and Engineering,
The University of Electro-Communications, Chofu, Japan
CAM software is generally used to generate tool paths for 5-axis controlled machining. However, adjusting its several parameters and settings is difficult. We propose a system for tool path generation to be applied to 5-axis controlled machining. The system allows machining movements to be established by manipulating haptic devices in a virtual environment. Therefore, the cutter location for 5-axis machining can be easily controlled by operating a virtual cutting tool. The contact between the cutting tool and the target shape is reflected to the user through the haptic device. The generated path can be converted into a numerical control program for the actual machining of the target object. We detail the implementation of the proposed interface using two haptic devices and a method of tool path generation that improves rough cutting by smoothing the generated cutting points and simplifying the tool postures. The effectiveness of the developed system is confirmed through machining simulations.
-  K. Nakamoto and Y. Takeuchi, “Recent Advances in Multiaxis Control and Multitasking Machining,” Int. J. Automation Technol., Vol.11, No.2, pp. 140-154, 2017.
-  W. R. Sherman and A. B. Craig, “Understanding Virtual Reality: Interface, Application, and Design (A volume in the Morgan Kaufmann Series in Computer Graphics) 2nd Edition,” Elsevier, 2018.
-  M. A. Srinivasan and C. Basdogan, “Haptics in virtual environments: Taxonomy, research status, and challenges,” Computers and Graphics, Vol.21, No.4, pp. 393-404, 1997.
-  K. Hikichi, H. Morino, I. Arimoto, I. Fukuda, S. Matsumoto, M. Iijima, K. Sezaki, and Y. Yasuda, “Architecture of Haptics Communication System for adaptation to network environments,” Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. on Multimedia and Expo, 2001 (ICME 2001), pp. 563-566, 2001.
-  K. Watanuki, “Knowledge Acquisition and Job Training for Advanced Technical Skills by Using Immersive Virtual Environment,” J. of the Japan Society of Precision Engineering, Vol.72, No.1, pp. 46-51, 2006.
-  M. Arbabtafti, M. Moghaddam, A. Nahvi, M. Mahvash, B. Richardson, and B. Shirinzadeh, “Physics-Based Haptic Simulation of Bone Machining,” IEEE Trans. on Haptics, Vol.4, No.1, pp. 39-50, 2011.
-  K. Imanishi, M. Nakao, T. Kuroda, and H. Oyama, “Haptic Navigation Method for Improving Safety of Master-Slave Type Robotic Surgery,” Trans. of the Virtual Reality Society of Japan, Vol.8, No.3, pp. 321-328, 2003.
-  R. Kamata, R. Tamura, S. Niitsu, H. Kawaharada, and H. Hiraoka, “Use of 1DOF Haptic Device for Remote-Controlled 6DOF Assembly,” Int. J. Automation Technol., Vol.8, No.3, pp. 452-459, 2014.
-  S. Niitsu, R. Tamura, and H. Hiraoka, “Detection of Contact Point of Parts Using a Force Sensor for Remote-Controlled Assembly Using a 1DOF Haptic Device,” Int. J. Automation Technol., Vol.9, No.6, pp. 747-755, 2015.
-  K. Morishige, “Development of Operation Interface for Multi-Axis Controlled Machine Tools Using Haptic Device – Examination of Basic Function and Tool Path Generation –,” Proc. of Int. Symp. on Flexible Automation, 0026-a, 2006.
-  F. Crison, A. Lecuyer, D. Huart, J. M. Burkhardt, G. Michel, and J. L. Dautin, “Virtual Technical Trainer: Learning How to Use Milling Machines with Multi-Sensory Feedback in Virtual Reality,” Proc. of IEEE Int. Conf. on Virtual Reality, pp. 139-145, 2005.
-  T. Ito and H. Miyata, “Development of force-feedback interface for drilling simulation,” The Proc. of Conf. of Chugoku-Shikoku Branch, Vol.43, pp. 343-344, 2005.
-  K. Morishige and M. Nakada, “Development of turning machine operation interface that uses haptic device (application to complicated cutting by special byte),” Proc. 49th CIRP Conf. on Manufacturing Systems, Vol.111, G4-11, 2016.
-  R. Oka and K. Morishige, “Development of Operation Interface for Turning Machine Using Haptic Device,” Int. J. Automation Technol., Vol.8, No.3, pp. 445-451, 2014.
-  C. Fletcher, J. Ritchie, T. Lim, and R. Sung, “The development of an integrated haptic VR machining environment for the automatic generation of process plans,” Computers in Industry, Vol.64, pp. 1045-1060, 2013.
-  K. Kobayashi, N. Hashimoto, and H. Kato, “Simulation of Boring Operation with Lathe by Means of Mixed Reality,” Trans. of the Virtual Reality Society of Japan, Vol.4, No.4, pp. 685-690, 1999.
-  H. Kato, K. Kobayashi, and S. Liu, “Skill Learning in Manual Machine Tool Operation: Development of New Virtual Lathe and Study on Minute Grooving by Using IT,” J. of the Japan Society of Precision Engineering, Vol.62, No.7, pp. 999-1003, 1996.
-  T. H. Massie and J. K. Salisbury, “The PHANTOM Haptic Interface: A Device for Probing Virtual Objects,” Proc. 3rd Symp. on Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems, pp. 295-300, 1994.
-  J. K. Salisbury and M. A. Srinivasan, “Phantom-based haptic interaction with virtual objects,” IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, Vol.17, No.5, pp. 6-10, 1997.
-  B. Itkowitz, J. Handley, and W. Zhu, “The OpenHaptics™ Toolkit: A Library for Adding 3D Touch™ Navigation and Haptics to Graphics Applications,” Proc. of 1st Symp. on Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems, 2005.
-  M. Loic, “A New Approach to Octree-Based Hexahedral Meshing,” Proc. of 10th Int. Meshing Roundtable, pp. 209-221, 2001.
-  M. L. Staten, S. J. Owen, and T. D. Blacker, “Unconstrained Paving & Plastering: A New Idea for All Hexahedral Mesh Generation,” Proc. of 14th Int. Meshing Roundtable, pp. 399-416, 2005.
-  D. C. Ruspini, K. Kolarov, and O. Khatib, “The Haptic Display of Complex Graphical Environments,” Proc. of SIGGRAPH 97, pp. 345-352, 1997.
-  A. W. Bowman and A. Azzalini, “Applied Smoothing Techniques for Data Analysis: The Kernel Approach With S-Plus Illustrations,” Oxford University Press, 1997.
-  Y. Takeuchi and T. Watanabe, “Generation of 5-axis Control Collision-Free Tool Path and Postprocessing for NC Data,” Ann. ClRP, Vol.41, No.1, pp. 539-542, 1992.
-  CGTech Co., Ltd., “VERICUT.” https://www.cgtech.com/ [Accessed April 28, 2020]