Studies on Eco-Friendly Grinding with an Extremely Small Amount of Coolant – Applicability of Contact-Type Flexible Brush-Nozzle –
Akira Hosokawa*,, Ryosuke Shimizu**, Takahiro Kiwata*, Tomohiro Koyano*, Tatsuaki Furumoto*, and Yohei Hashimoto*
*Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Kanazawa University
Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-1192, Japan
**Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Japan
This study considers an innovative coolant nozzle that enables a remarkable reduction in grinding fluid consumption in cylindrical plunge grinding of chromium molybdenum steel (ISO 34CrMo4 / JIS SCM435) using a vitrified-bonded cubic boron nitride (CBN) wheel. This coolant nozzle has a simple structure consisting of ordinary nylon or polypropylene fiber brushes and an acrylic resin oil pool. This flexible brush-nozzle is suitably placed in contact with the wheel surface, and the grinding fluid is supplied along the brush to the wheel surface to form a fluid film to the wheel surface, while simultaneously scraping the “air belt.” Thus, the grinding fluid adheres to the whole wheel surface by the “Coandă effect,” and grinding fluid consumption is reduced to 0.5 L/min or less without causing any thermal damage to the ground surface. The cooling effect of this coolant nozzle is examined mainly by a grinding temperature measurement by means of a fiber-coupled two-color pyrometer. The nylon fiber brush is more effective than the polypropylene brush because of its high elasticity and good water absorption rate, which is related to the wettability. Even with such an extremely small amount of grinding fluid, the grinding force, surface roughness, and grinding temperature are nearly the same as those in the case of the conventional wet grinding.
-  J. F. G. Oliveira, E. J. Silva, C. Guo, and F. Hashimoto, “Industrial challenges in grinding,” CIRP Annals – Manufacturing Technology, Vol.58, Issue 2, pp. 663-680, doi: 10.1016/j.cirp.2009.09.006, 2009.
-  P. Comley, I. Walton, T. Jin, and D. J. Stephenson, “A High Material Removal Rate Grinding Process for the Production of Automotive Crankshafts,” CIRP Annals – Manufacturing Technology, Vol.55, Issue 1, pp. 347-350, doi: 10.1016/S0007-8506(07)60432-6, 2006.
-  M. Fujimoto, Y. Wu, M. Nomura, H. Kanai, and M. Jin, “Surface Topography of Mini-Size Diamond Wheel in Ultrasonic Assisted Grinding (UAG),” Int. J. Automation Technol., Vol.8, No.4, pp. 569-575, doi: 10.20965/ijat.2014.p0569, 2014.
-  M. Fujimoto, Y. Wu, M. Nomura, H. Kanai, and M. Jin, “Wear Behavior of Grain Cutting Edge in Ultrasonic Assisted Grinding Using Mini-Size Wheel,” Int. J. Automation Technol., Vol.9, No.4, pp. 365-372, doi: 10.20965/ijat.2015.p0365, 2015.
-  K. Nimura, N. Takeuchi, and H. Sasahara, “Oscillating Finish Grinding of CFRP with Woven Metal Wire Tool Utilizing Plunge Pump Pulsation,” Int. J. Automation Technol., Vol.12, No.6, pp. 940-946, doi: 10.20965/ijat.2018.p0940, 2018.
-  T. Ueda, A. Hosokawa, and A. Yamamoto, “Measurement of Grinding Temperature Using Infrared Radiation Pyrometer with Optical Fiber,” J. of Engineering for Industry – Trans. ASME, Vol.108, No.4, pp. 247-251, doi: 10.1115/1.3187074, 1986.
-  S. Malkin and C. Guo, “Thermal Analysis of Grinding,” CIRP Annals – Manufacturing Technology, Vol.56, Issue 2, pp. 760-782, doi: 10.1016/j.cirp.2007.10.005, 2007.
-  C. Guo, Y. Wu, V. Varghese, and S. Malkin, “Temperatures and Energy Partition for Grinding with Vitrified CBN Wheels,” CIRP Annals – Manufacturing Technology, Vol.48, Issue 1, pp. 247-250, doi: 10.1016/S0007-8506(07)63176-X, 1999.
-  C. Heinzel, D. Meyer, B. Kolkwitz, and J. Eckebrecht, “Advanced approach for a demand-oriented fluid supply in grinding,” CIRP Annals – Manufacturing Technology, Vol.64, Issue 1, pp. 333-336, doi: 10.1016/j.cirp.2015.04.009, 2015.
-  J. Shibata, T. Goto, M. Yamamoto, and H. Tsuwa, “Characteristics of Air Flow Around a Grinding Wheel and Their Availability for Assessing the Wheel Wear,” CIRP Annals – Manufacturing Technology, Vol.31, Issue 1, pp. 233-238, doi: 10.1016/S0007-8506(07)63304-6, 1952.
-  M. N. Morgan, A. R. Jackson, H. Wu, V. Baines-Jones, A. Batako, and W. B. Rowe, “Optimisation of fluid application in grinding,” CIRP Annals – Manufacturing Technology, Vol.57, Issue 1, pp. 363-366, doi: 10.1016/j.cirp.2008.03.090, 2008.
-  R. Alberdi, J. A. Sanchez, I. Pombo, N. Ortega, B. Izquierdo, S. Plaza, and D. Barrenetxea, “Strategies for optimal use of fluids in grinding,” Int. J. of Machine Tools and Manufacture, Vol.51, Issue 6, pp. 491-499, doi: 10.1016/j.ijmachtools.2011.02.007, 2011.
-  M. J. Hadad and B. Sadeghi, “Thermal analysis of minimum quantity lubrication – MQL grinding process,” Int. J. of Machine Tools and Manufacture, Vol.63, pp. 1-15, doi: 10.1016/j.ijmachtools.2012.07.003, 2012.
-  K. Mishima, A. Hosokawa, T. Kiwata, T. Ueda, T. Furumoto, and T. Koyano, “Studies on Reduction of Grinding Fluid in Cylindrical Plunge Grinding,” Proc. of the 15th Int. Conf. on Precision Engineering, P08, pp. 617-620, 2014.
-  E. Brinksmeier, C. Heinzel, and M. Wittmann, “Friction, Cooling and Lubrication in Grinding,” CIRP Annals – Manufacturing Technology, Vol.48, Issue 2, pp. 581-598, doi: 10.1016/S0007-8506(07)63236-3, 1999.
-  T. Yoshimi, S. Oishi, S. Okubo, and H. Morita, “Development of Minimized Coolant Supply Technology in Grinding,” JTEKT Engineering J., 1007E, pp. 54-59, 2010.
-  R. A. Irani, R. J. Bauer, and A. Warkentin, “A review of cutting fluid application in the grinding process,” Int. J. of Machine Tools & Manufacture, Vol.45, Issue 15, pp. 1696-1705, doi: 10.1016/j.ijmachtools.2005.03.006, 2005.
-  J. Webster, E. Brinksmeier, C. Heinzel, M. Wittmann, and K. Thoens, “Assessment of Grinding Fluid Effectiveness in Continuous-Dress Creep Feed Grinding,” CIRP Annals – Manufacturing Technology, Vol.51, Issue 1, pp. 235-240, doi: 10.1016/S0007-8506(07)61507-8, 2002.
-  S. Ninomiya, K. Suzuki, T. Uematsu, M. Iwai, and K. Tanaka, “Effect of a Small Gap Nozzle Facing to Grinding Wheel in Slit Grinding,” Key Engineering Materials, Vols.257-258, pp. 327-332, doi: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/KEM.257-258.327, 2004.
-  K. Suzuki, Y. Tanaka, M. Iwai, T. Uematsu, and K. Tanaka, “Effects of the Megasonic Floating Nozzle on Grinding Performance for Hard Materials,” Key Engineering Materials, Vol.257-258, pp. 311-314, doi: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/KEM.257-258.311, 2004.
-  A. Lopez-Arraiza, G. Castillo, N. Hom, H. N. Dhakal, and R. Alberdi, “High performance composite nozzle for the improvement of cooling in grinding machine tools,” Composites, Part B, Vol.54, pp. 313-318, doi: 10.1016/j.compositesb.2013.05.029, 2013.
-  J. Ishimatsu, A. Iwaita, and H. Isobe, “Grinding a Hard-to-Grind Materials with Ultrasonic-Assisted Fluid,” Int. J. Automation Technol., Vol.8, No.3, pp. 478-483, doi: 10.20965/ijat.2014.p0478, 2014.
-  A. Hosokawa, K. Tokunaga, T. Ueda, T. Kiwata, and T. Koyano, “Drastic reduction of grinding fluid flow in cylindrical plunge grinding by means of contact-type flexible brush-nozzle,” CIRP Annals – Manufacturing Technology, Vol.65, Issue 1, pp. 317-320, doi: 10.1016/j.cirp.2016.04.092, 2016.
-  T. Ueda, M. Sato, A. Hosokawa, and M. Ozawa, “Development of infrared radiation pyrometer with optical fibers – Two-color pyrometer with non-contact fiber coupler,” CIRP Annals – Manufacturing Technology, Vol.57, Issue 1, pp. 69-72, doi: 10.1016/j.cirp.2008.03.056, 2008.
-  A. Hosokawa, T. Ueda, R. Onishi, R. Tanaka, and T. Furumoto, “Turning of difficult-to-machine materials with actively driven rotary tool,” CIRP Annals – Manufacturing Technology, Vol.59, Issue 1, pp. 89-92, doi: 10.1016/j.cirp.2010.03.053, 2010.
-  H. Sato, K. Iwata, M. Kanda, N. Hironaka, and Y. Nishi, “Influence of water absorption on wettability of acryl resin for biomedical applications,” J. of Advanced Science, Vol.19, Nos.3-4, pp. 51-54, doi: 10.2978/jsas.19.51, 2007.
-  S. Malkin and C. Guo, “Grinding Technology, Second Edition,” Industrial Press, pp. 162-165, 2008.
-  S. Okuyama, M. Komada, Y. Nakamura, and S. Kawamura, “Study on the Cooling Effect of Grinding Fluid (1st Report) – Method for Measuring the Local Heat Transfer Coefficient and its Distribution,” J. of Japan Society of Precision Engineering, Vol.56, No.8, pp. 1462-1467, doi: 10.2493/jjspe.56.1462, 1990 (in Japanese).
-  T. Jin, D. J. Stephenson, and W. B. Rowe, “Estimation of the convection heat transfer coefficient of coolant within the grinding zone,” Proc. of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part B: J. of Engineering Manufacture, Vol.217, Issue 3, pp. 397-407, doi: 10.1243/095440503321590550, 2003.