Effect of CAD/CAM Post Process on S-Shaped Machining Test for Five-Axis Machining Center
Yukitoshi Ihara*,, Koichiro Takubo*, Tatsuo Nakai**, and Ryuta Sato***
*Osaka Institute of Technology
5-16-1 Omiya, Asahi-ku, Osaka 535-8585, Japan
**Yamazaki Mazak Corp., Niwa, Japan
***Kobe University, Kobe, Japan
ISO 10791-7, the test standard for machining centers, was revised in 2014 to add the test method for five-axis machining centers. However, an S-shaped test was additionally proposed as an accuracy test of aircraft parts from China immediately before the establishment of the test standard. In an ISO meeting, various problems such as creating three-dimensional models and evaluation items have been indicated for the proposed test method. By revising these problems, the standard was finally completed and will be introduced as an informative annex soon. However, it is still an inappropriate test method from the viewpoint of performance inspection for machine tools. In this research, the S-shaped test method draft proposed in September 2016 is tested using two types of five-axis machining centers and commercial CAM software. Consequently, a hidden problem is revealed, that is, an abrupt movement that affected the final result is added to the machine because the rotation direction of the rotary axes is not ideal. This is attributed to the performance of the CAM software’s post processor that converts from CL data to NC program. This study provides some insights into avoiding the problem and obtaining better test results.
-  S. Bossoni, “Geometric and Dynamic Evaluation and Optimization of Machining Centers,” Fortschritt-Berichte VDI, Vol.672, Reihe 2, 2009.
-  Y. Ihara and S. Matsushita, “A Study on Tool Position and Posture Measurement Device by Using Parallel Mechanism,” Int. J. Automation Technol., Vol.3, No.3, pp. 271-276, 2009.
-  Y. Mizugaki, “Effect of Workpiece Location on Manipulability Measure in 5-Axis-Controlled Machine Tools,” Int. J. Automation Technol., Vol.4, No.3, pp. 268-272, 2010.
-  B. Sencer and Y. Altintas, “Identification of 5-Axis Machine Tools Feed Drive Systems for Contouring Simulation,” Int. J. Automation Technol., Vol.5, No.3, pp. 377-386, 2011.
-  S. Ibaraki and W. Knapp, “Indirect Measurement of Volumetric Accuracy for Three-Axis and Five-Axis Machine Tools: A Review,” Int. J. Automation Technol., Vol.6, No.2, pp. 110-124, 2012.
-  S. Ibaraki and Y. Ota, “Error Calibration for Five-Axis Machine Tools by On-the-Machine Measurement Using a Touch-Trigger Probe,” Int. J. Automation Technol., Vol.8, No.1, pp. 20-27, 2014.
-  F. Sellmann, T. Haas, H. Nguyen, S. Weikert, and K. Wegener, “Orientation Smoothing for 5-Axis Machining Using Quasi-Redundant Degrees of Freedom,” Int. J. Automation Technol., Vol.10, No.2, pp. 262-271, 2016.
-  M. Yamada, T. Kondo, and K. Wakasa, “High Efficiency Machining for Integral Shaping from Simplicity Materials Using Five-Axis Machine Tools,” Int. J. Automation Technol., Vol.10, No.5, pp. 804-812, 2016.
-  T. Nishiguchi, S. Hasegawa, R. Sato, and K. Shirase, “Evaluation Method for Behavior of Rotary Axis Around Motion Direction Changing,” Int. J. Automation Technol., Vol.11, No.2, pp. 171-178, 2017.
-  S. Ibaraki and I. Yoshida, “A Five-Axis Machining Error Simulator for Rotary-Axis Geometric Errors Using Commercial Machining Simulation Software,” Int. J. Automation Technol., Vol.11, No.2, pp. 179-187, 2017.
-  D. Kono, F. Sakamoto, and I. Yamaji, “Linked Ball Bar for Flexible Motion Error Measurement for Machine Tools,” Int. J. Automation Technol., Vol.11, No.2, pp. 188-196, 2017.
-  Y. Ihara, K. Tsuji, and T. Tajima, “Ball Bar Measurement of Motion Accuracy in Simulating Cone Frustum Cutting on Multi-Axis Machine Tools,” Int. J. Automation Technol., Vol.11, No.2, pp. 197-205, 2017.
-  R. Sato and K. Shirase, “Geometric Error Compensation of Five-Axis Machining Centers Based on On-Machine Workpiece Measurement,” Int. J. Automation Technol., Vol.12, No.2, pp. 230-237, 2018.
-  N. Lanz, D. Spescha, S. Weikert, and K. Wegener, “Efficient Static and Dynamic Modelling of Machine Structures with Large Linear Motions,” Int. J. Automation Technol., Vol.12, No.5, pp. 622-630, 2018.
-  W. Arai, F. Tanaka, and M. Onosato, “Error Estimation of Machined Surfaces in Multi-Axis Machining with Machine Tool Errors Including Tool Self-Intersecting Motion Based on High-Accuracy Tool Swept Volumes,” Int. J. Automation Technol., Vol.12, No.5, pp. 680-687, 2018.
-  R. Sato, S. Hasegawa, K. Shirase, M. Hasegawa, A. Saito, and T. Iwasaki, “Motion Accuracy Enhancement of Five-Axis Machine Tools by Modified CL-Data,” Int. J. Automation Technol., Vol.12, No.5, pp. 699-706, 2018.
-  K. Szipka and A. Archenti, “Utilization of Multi-Axis Positioning Repeatability Performance in Kinematic Modelling,” Int. J. Automation Technol., Vol.13, No.1, pp. 149-156, 2019.
-  M. Tsutsumi and A. Saito, “Identification and compensation of systematic deviations particular to 5-axis machining centers,” Int. J. of Machine Tools & Manufacture, Vol.43, pp. 771-780, 2003.
-  M. Tsutsumi and A. Saito, “Identification of angular and positional deviations inherent to 5-axis machining centers with a tilting-rotary table by simultaneous four-axis control movements,” Int. J. of Machine Tools & Manufacture, Vol.44, pp. 1333-1342, 2004.
-  Y. Kakino, S. Ibaraki, I. Yamaji, K. Ogawa, and H. Ota, “Measurement of Motion Accuracies of Five-Axis Machine Tools by Using the Double Ball Bar Method DBB5,” Proc. of 2008 Int. Symp. on Flexible Automation, 2008.
-  S. Ibaraki, Y. Nakino, T. Akai, N. Takayama, I. Yamaji, and K. Ogawa, “Identification of Motion Error Sources on Five-axis Machine Tools by Ball-bar Measurements,” Precision Engineering, Vol.76, No.3, pp. 333-337, 2010.
-  Y. Ihara, “Ball Bar Measurement on Machine Tools with Rotary Axes,” Int. J. Automation Technol., Vol.6, No.2, pp. 180-187, 2012.
-  S. Weikert, “R-test, a New Device for Accuracy Measurement on Five Axis Machine Tools,” Annals of the CIRP, Vol.53, No.1, pp. 429-432, 2004.
-  B. Bringmann and A. Kung, “A new Measuring Artefact for true 3D Machine Tool Testing and Calibration,” Annals of CIRP, Vol.54, No.1, pp. 471-474, 2005.
-  B. Bringmann and W. Knapp, “Model-based Chase-the-Ball Calibration of a 5-Axes Machining Center,” Annals of the CIRP, Vol.55, No.1, pp. 531-534, 2006.
-  G. H. J. Florussen and H. A. M. Spaan, “Static R-test: allocating the centerline of rotary axes of machine tools,” Laser Metrology and Machine Performance VIII, pp. 196-202, 2007.
-  S. Ibaraki, C. Oyama, and Otsubo, “Construction of an Error Map of Rotary Axes on a Five-axis Machining Center by Static R-test,” Int. J. of Machine Tools and Manufacture, Vol.51, pp. 190-200, 2011.
-  Y. Ihara and Y. Hiramatsu, “Design of Motion Accuracy Measurement Device for NC Machine Tools with Three Displacement Sensors,” Int. J. Automation Technol., Vol.5, No.6, pp. 847-854, 2011.
-  C. Hong and S. Ibaraki, “Observation of Thermal Influence on Error Motions of Rotary Axes on a Five-Axis Machine Tool by Static R-Test,” Int. J. Automation Technol., Vol.6, No.2, pp. 196-204, 2012.
-  S. Ibaraki, Y. Nagai, H. Otsubo, Y. Sakai, S. Morimoto, and Y. Miyazaki, “R-Test Analysis Software for Error Calibration of Five-Axis Machine Tools Application to a Five-Axis Machine Tool with Two Rotary Axes on the Tool Side,” Int. J. Automation Technol., Vol.9, No.4, pp. 387-395, 2015.
-  S. Hong, A. Ibaraki, and A. Matsubara, “Influence of Position dependent Geometric Errors of Rotary Axes on a Machining Test of Cone Frustum by Five-axis Machine Tools,” Precision Engineering, Vol.35, No.1, pp. 1-11, 2011.
-  Y. Ihara, “Possibility of Ball Bar Test on Multi-axis Machining Center,” Laser Metrology and Machine Performance VII, pp. 107-115, 2005.
-  M. Matano and Y. Ihara, “Ball bar measurement of five-axis conical movement,” Laser Metrology and Machine Performance VIII, pp. 34-43, 2007.
-  ISO10791-6, “Machine Tools – Test conditions for machining centres – Part 6: Accuracy of speeds and interpolations,” 2014.
-  ISO10791-7, “Machine Tools – Test conditions for machining centres – Part 7: Accuracy of finished test piece,” 2014.
-  NAS 979, “Uniform cutting tests – metal cutting equipment specifications,” Aerospace Industries Association of America, pp. 34-37, 1969.
-  W. Weng, Z. Jiang, W. Tao, and W. Zhuang, “A new test part to identify performance of five-axis machine tool – part I: geometrical and kinematic characteristics of S part,” The Int. J. of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol.79, pp. 729-738, 2015.
-  Q. Jian, “S form Specimen Cutting Dynamic Performance Testing and its Key Technologies,” China Mechanical Engineering, Vol.25, No.12, pp. 1600-1604, 2014.
-  T. Nakai and Y. Ihara, “Study on the S-shaped Test Piece of 5-Axis Machining Center,” Proc. of the Int. Conf. on Leading Edge Manufacturing in 21st Century (LEM21), B02(048), 2017.