IJAT Vol.13 No.3 pp. 361-371
doi: 10.20965/ijat.2019.p0361


Development of Path Generation Method for Five-Axis 3D Printer

Hikaru Nishikawa, Yoshitaka Morimoto, and Akio Hayashi

Kanazawa Institute of Technology
7-1 Ohgigaoka, Nonoichi 921-8501, Japan

Corresponding author

October 25, 2018
February 12, 2019
May 5, 2019
additive manufacturing, 3D printer, five-axis position control

3D printers that use the fused deposition modeling (FDM) method are generally based on a three-linear-axis mechanism. However, because the posture of the workpiece is limited, the shape of the model that can be generated by this type of 3D printer is restricted. The 3D printer makes 3D models by stacking up materials on a plane. Because of this principle, a base to support the laminated material is necessary, and it is impossible to develop a model shape with an overhang without support parts. Although the problem is solved by making a foundation using a support material, it takes time to shape and remove the material. Therefore, this conventional method is time consuming. The purpose of this research is to laminate and make shapes that are difficult to laminate with a three-axis 3D printer without using support material. Therefore, a new five-axis 3D printer was developed with the FDM method, and its control program was designed. In addition, hardware consisting of the mechanical structure and the servo control system was developed, and the laminating path, which can exert the effect of the five-axis mechanism, was calculated. The posture of the workpiece can be controlled by mounting the B-axis, which tilts the lamination table, and the C-axis, which rotates the lamination table added on the three-axis configuration 3D printer. Furthermore, a five-axis synchronization control program was developed to control the motion of the five-axis synchronous motion. Furthermore, to correct the nozzle position due to the posture change of the workpiece, a mathematical model of shape creation theory was applied to derive the offset command value. As a result of the laminating experiments of the overhang shape model, the five-axis mechanism and laminating path were sufficiently effective, and the five-axis synchronous control of the 3D printer demonstrated the creation of the overhang shape. However, in experiments using a conventional three-axis mechanism 3D printer with the same lamination path, resins did not adhere and dripped, making shaping impossible. Because of these results, the machining time of the five-axis controlled 3D printers was shorter than that of conventional three-axis-controlled 3D printers. Here, the basic configurations and control system are reported.

Cite this article as:
H. Nishikawa, Y. Morimoto, and A. Hayashi, “Development of Path Generation Method for Five-Axis 3D Printer,” Int. J. Automation Technol., Vol.13 No.3, pp. 361-371, 2019.
Data files:
  1. [1] P. Dudek, “FDM 3D Printing Technology in Manufacturing Composite Elements,” Archives of Metallurgy and Materials, Vol.58, No.4, pp. 1415-1418, 2013.
  2. [2] T. Hagiwara, “Current status and future of 3D printers as seen from materials,” SOKEIZAI, Vol.54, No.9, pp. 37-44, 2013 (in Japanese).
  3. [3] H. Endo and T. Umeno, “Study on the Influence of Temperature of Extruder Head on the Strength of the FDM 3D Printing Model,” J. Robot. Mechatron., Vol.29, No.4, pp. 767-771, 2017.
  4. [4] R. Melnikova, A. Ehrmann, and K. Finsterbusch, “3D printing of textile-based structures by Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) with different polymer materials,” IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Vol.62, conf.1, 2014.
  5. [5] T. Ota, K. Okada, A. Saito, K. Yoshida, G. Murasawa, M. Kawakami, and H. Furukawa, “Lamination direction dependence of mechanical properties of gel and plastic shaped with 3D printer,” Trans. of the JSME, Vol.83, No.850, p. 16-00567, 2017 (in Japanese).
  6. [6] K. Kun, “Reconstruction and Development of a 3D Printer Using FDM Technology,” Procedia Engineering, Vol.149, pp. 203-211, 2016.
  7. [7] J. Vanek, J. A. G. Galicia, and B. Benes, “Clever Support: Efficient Support Structure Generation for Digital Fabrication,” Computer Graphics Forum, Vol.33, No.5, pp. 117-125, 2014.
  8. [8] K. Oshima and R. Hayashi, “Study of printing support material in FDM 3D printer,” Proc. of the 77th National Convention of Information Processing Society of Japan (IPSJ2015), pp. 59-60, 2015 (in Japanese).
  9. [9] H. Peng, J. Mankoff, S. E. Hudson, and J. McCann, “A Layered Fabric 3D Printer for Soft Interactive Objects,” Proc. of the 33rd Annual ACM Conf. on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 1789-1798, 2015.
  10. [10] S. Koizumi, T. Kawamura, and T. Mochizuki, “Study on CAM Software for Additive Manufacturing with FDM Method,” Int. J. Automation Technol., Vol.11, No.5, pp. 835-843, 2017.
  11. [11] O. K. Grutle, “5-axis 3D Printer,” University of Oslo, 2015.
  12. [12] K. Kawagishi, S. Umetani, K. Tanaka, E. Ametani, Y. Morimoto, and K. Takasugi, “Development of Four-Axis 3D Printer with Fused Deposition Modeling Technology,” Int. J. Automation Technol., Vol.11, No.2, pp. 278-286, 2017.
  13. [13] OMRON Corporation, Sysmac Studio Version 1 Operation manual (in Japanese).
  14. [14] S. Goto, M. Nakamura, S. Oka, and N. Kyura, “Method of Synchronous Position Control for Multi Servo Systems by Using Inverse Dynamics of Slave Systems,” Trans. of the Society of Instrument and Control Engineers, Vol.30, No.6, pp. 669-676, 1994.
  15. [15] R. Sato, S. Hasegawa, K. Shirase, M. Hasegawa, A. Saito, and T. Iwasaki, “Motion Accuracy Enhancement of Five-Axis Machine Tools by Modified CL-Data,” Int. J. Automation Technol., Vol.12, No.5, pp. 699-706, 2018.
  16. [16] I. Inasaki, “Theory of shape creation of machine tools – its foundation and its application,” Yokendo, pp. 1-8, 1997 (in Japanese).
  17. [17] M. Nagasaka and Y. Takeuchi, “Generalized Post-Processor for 5-Axis Control Machining Based on Form Shape Function,” J. of the JSPE, Vol.62, No.11, pp. 1607-1611, 1996.
  18. [18] S. Ibaraki, “Spatial accuracy of machine tool Geometric model – Correction and measurement of three-dimensional motion error,” Morikita Publishing Co., Ltd., pp. 40-65, 2017 (in Japanese).
  19. [19] M. Kin, “The data science by R – From the foundation of data analysis to the latest method,” Morikita Publishing Co., Ltd., pp. 181-182, 2007 (in Japanese).
  20. [20] K. Lee and H. Jee, “Slicing algorithms for multi-axis 3-D metal printing of overhangs,” J. of Mechanical Science and Technology, Vol.29, Issue 12, pp. 5139-5144, 2015.

*This site is desgined based on HTML5 and CSS3 for modern browsers, e.g. Chrome, Firefox, Safari, Edge, Opera.

Last updated on Jul. 12, 2024