Fabrication of Hyper-Hemisphere of Cobalt-Chromium Alloys Using Curve Generator Machining
Shoichi Tamura and Takashi Matsumura
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tokyo Denki University
5 Senju Asahi-cho, Adachi-ku, Tokyo 120-8551, Japan
High-precision machining is required for manufacturing hyper-hemispherical artificial joints made of difficult-to-cut metals such as cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) alloys to provide wear resistance in the human body. The hyper-hemisphere of Co-Cr alloys is finished by curve generator machining, in which the rotation axes of the cutter and workpiece intersect each other at the center of the sphere to be machined. This paper presents a kinematic model to simulate the shape and surface topography on hyper-hemispheres with the cutter loci in curve generator machining. The kinematic model was validated with a cutting test, in which the surface profiles were measured around the pole and equator of the sphere. Simulations were performed to study the cutting process and surface finish. The appropriate cutting parameters were determined to improve the surface finish based on a kinematic simulation. A smooth surface was obtained when small inclinations of the workpiece, large nose radii of the cutter, low workpiece rotation speeds, and non-integer ratios of the tool spindle speed to the workpiece rotation speed were employed. The effects of the setting errors, such as the mounting error of the cutter and alignment error of the spindle and workpiece axes, were estimated via the kinematic simulation. It was found that the surface topography and radius of the sphere depended on the setting errors. The radius and center of the spherical shape were different from those of an ideal sphere by an error in the X-axis in the global coordinate system. The oval shape was caused by an error in the Y-axis. An error in the Z-axis affected the radius of the machined sphere.
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