single-au.php

IJAT Vol.13 No.1 pp. 109-117
doi: 10.20965/ijat.2019.p0109
(2019)

Paper:

Fabrication of Hyper-Hemisphere of Cobalt-Chromium Alloys Using Curve Generator Machining

Shoichi Tamura and Takashi Matsumura

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tokyo Denki University
5 Senju Asahi-cho, Adachi-ku, Tokyo 120-8551, Japan

Corresponding author

Received:
July 9, 2018
Accepted:
November 16, 2018
Published:
January 5, 2019
Keywords:
artificial joint, setting error, topography, roughness, Co-Cr alloys
Abstract

High-precision machining is required for manufacturing hyper-hemispherical artificial joints made of difficult-to-cut metals such as cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) alloys to provide wear resistance in the human body. The hyper-hemisphere of Co-Cr alloys is finished by curve generator machining, in which the rotation axes of the cutter and workpiece intersect each other at the center of the sphere to be machined. This paper presents a kinematic model to simulate the shape and surface topography on hyper-hemispheres with the cutter loci in curve generator machining. The kinematic model was validated with a cutting test, in which the surface profiles were measured around the pole and equator of the sphere. Simulations were performed to study the cutting process and surface finish. The appropriate cutting parameters were determined to improve the surface finish based on a kinematic simulation. A smooth surface was obtained when small inclinations of the workpiece, large nose radii of the cutter, low workpiece rotation speeds, and non-integer ratios of the tool spindle speed to the workpiece rotation speed were employed. The effects of the setting errors, such as the mounting error of the cutter and alignment error of the spindle and workpiece axes, were estimated via the kinematic simulation. It was found that the surface topography and radius of the sphere depended on the setting errors. The radius and center of the spherical shape were different from those of an ideal sphere by an error in the X-axis in the global coordinate system. The oval shape was caused by an error in the Y-axis. An error in the Z-axis affected the radius of the machined sphere.

Cite this article as:
S. Tamura and T. Matsumura, “Fabrication of Hyper-Hemisphere of Cobalt-Chromium Alloys Using Curve Generator Machining,” Int. J. Automation Technol., Vol.13, No.1, pp. 109-117, 2019.
Data files:
References
  1. [1] H. Ohmori, K. Katahira, Y. Akinou, J. Komotori, and M. Mizutani, “Investigation on Grinding Characteristics and Surface-modifying Effects of Biocompatible Co-Cr Alloy,” CIRP Ann-Manuf. Techn., Vol.55, No.1, pp. 597-600, 2006.
  2. [2] Y. Song, C. H. Park, and T. Moriwaki, “Mirror Finishing of Co-Cr-Mo Alloy Using Elliptical Vibration Cutting,” Precision Engineering, Vol.34, No.4, pp. 784-789, 2010.
  3. [3] S. Baron, E. Ahearne, P. Connolly, S. Keaveney, and G. Byrne, “An Assessment of Medical Grade Cobalt Chromium Alloy ASTM F1537 as a Difficult to Cut (DTC) Material,” Proc. of Machine Tool Technology Research Foundation, 2015.
  4. [4] I. S. Jawahir, D. A. Puleo, and J. Schoop, “Cryogenic Machining of Biomedical Implant Materials for Improved Functional Performance,” Life and Sustainability, Procedia CIRP, Vol.46, pp. 7-14, 2016.
  5. [5] D. M. Razak, S. Syahrullail, N. Sapawe, Y. Azli, and N. Nuraliza, “A New Approach Using Palm Olein, Palm Kernel Oil, and Palm Fatty Acid Distillate as Alternative Biolubricants: Improving Tribology in Metal-on-metal Contact,” Tribology Trans., Vol.58 No.3, pp. 511-517, 2015.
  6. [6] Ş. Aykut, E. Bagci, A. Kentli, and O. Yazı cı oğlu, “Experimental Observation of Tool Wear, Cutting Forces and Chip Morphology in Face Milling of Cobalt Based Super-alloy with Physical Vapor deposition coated and uncoated tool,” Materials and Design, Vol.28, No.6, pp. 1880-1888, 2007.
  7. [7] A. Shokrani, V. Dhokia, and S. T. Newman, “Cryogenic High Speed Machining of Cobalt Chromium Alloy,” Procedia CIRP, Vol.46, pp. 404-407, 2016.
  8. [8] E. Ahearne, S. Baron, S. Keaveney, D. P. Dowling, and G. Byrne, “Tool Wear in Milling of Medical Grade Cobalt Chromium Alloy-Requirements for Advanced Process Monitoring and Data Analytics,” The Machine Tool Technologies Research Foundation and iAM-CNC Annual Meeting 2016, 2016.
  9. [9] E. Ahearne and S. Baron, “Fundamental Mechanisms in Orthogonal Cutting of Medical Grade Cobalt Chromium Alloy (ASTM F75),” CIRP J. of Manufacturing Science and Technology, Vol.9, pp. 1-6, 2017.
  10. [10] S. Baron and E. Ahearne, “An Investigation of Force Components in Orthogonal Cutting of Medical Grade Cobalt-Chromium Alloy (ASTM F1537),” Proc. of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, J. of Engineering in Medicine, Vol.231, No.4 (Part H), pp. 269-275, 2017.
  11. [11] Y. Sato, R. Sato, and K. Shirase, “Influence of Motion Error of Feed Drive Systems onto Machined Surface Generated by Ball End Mill,” J. of Advanced Mechanical Design, Systems, and Manufacturing, Vol.8, No.4, pp. 1-10, 2014.
  12. [12] T. Higuchi, H. Kunisada, Y. Kunii, R. Sato, and M. Tsutsumi, “Compensation of Quadrant Glitches with Two Peaks in Circular Motions of Machining Centers,” Trans. of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers, Vol.78, No.788 (Series C), pp. 1211-1220, 2012 (in Japanese).
  13. [13] S. Ibaraki and I. Yoshida, “A Five-axis Machining Error Simulator for Rotary-axis Geometric Errors Using Commercial Machining Simulation Software,” Int. J. Automation Technol., Vol.11, No.2, pp. 179-187, 2017.
  14. [14] J. G. Li, H. Zhao, Y. X. Yao, and C. Q. Liu, “Off-Line Optimization on NC Machining Based on Virtual Machining,” The Int. J. of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol.36, Nos.9-10, pp. 908-917, 2008.
  15. [15] S. Lavernhe, Y. Quinsat, and C. Lartigue, “Model for The Prediction of 3D Surface Topography in 5-Axis Milling,” The Int. J. of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol.51, Nos.9-12, pp. 915-924, 2010.
  16. [16] M. Serizawa and T. Matsumura, “Control of Helical Blade Machining in Whirling,” Procedia Manufacturing, Vol.5, pp. 417-426, 2016.
  17. [17] H. Ohmori, W. Lin, S. Moriyasu, and Y. Yamagata, “Microspherical Lens Fabrication by Cup Grinding Wheels Applying ELID Grinding,” Riken Review, pp. 3-5, 2001.
  18. [18] H. Ohmori, “Ultraprecision Aspherical Grinding System,” Proc. ELID-grinding, Vol.15, p. 146, 1996.
  19. [19] W. K. Chen and H. Huang, “Ultra Precision Grinding of Spherical Convex Surfaces on Combination Brittle Materials Using Resin and Metal Bond Cup Wheels,” J. of Materials Processing Technology, Vol.140, No.1, pp. 217-223, 2003.
  20. [20] W. K. Chen, T. Kuriyagawa, H. Huang, and N. Yosihara, “Machining of Micro Aspherical Mould Inserts,” Precision Engineering, Vol.29, No.3, pp. 315-323, 2005.
  21. [21] Y. Hwang, T. Kuriyagawa, and S. Lee, “Wheel Curve Generation Error of Aspheric Microgrinding in Parallel Grinding Method,” Int. J. of Machine Tools and Manufacture, Vol.46, No.15, pp. 1929-1933, 2006.

*This site is desgined based on HTML5 and CSS3 for modern browsers, e.g. Chrome, Firefox, Safari, Edge, IE9,10,11, Opera.

Last updated on Sep. 19, 2019