Development and Evaluation of a Low-Energy Consumption Wearable Wrist Warming Device
Guillaume Lopez*,, Takahiro Tokuda*, Manami Oshima*, Kizito Nkurikiyeyezu*, Naoya Isoyama**, and Kiyoshi Itao***
*College of Science and Engineering, Aoyama Gakuin University
5-10-1 Fuchinobe, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara-shi, Kanagawa 252-5258, Japan
**Graduate School of Engineering, Kobe University, Kobe, Japan
***The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
Today in Japan, comfortable lifestyle and environment realized by abundant electric power is being questioned by energy consumption reduction policies called “cool biz” in summer, and “warm biz” in winter. One reason of these policies is the bad energy consumption efficiency of current air-conditioning systems that cool or warm indirectly human body. Several researches have been investigating the effect of direct human body cooling and warming. However, most proposed solutions focus on direct head or neck cooling, using ice to cool a water circulating system, such temperature during use cannot be controlled accurately nor adapted to user and environment conditions. Recently, a Japanese research team developed a portable system using Peltier elements that can both cool and warm neck. Though cooling was demonstrated to affect positively both physiological and psychological state in summer heat environment, in cold climate it could be confirmed for only neck warming but not feet and hands. In our objective of developing effective energy saving technology for direct temperature-conditioning of human body, and in order to reduce the discomfort caused by body chillness, we have proposed and developed a Peltier element based wrist-mounted wearable device that directly warms human body. A first experimental study showed how wrist warming rhythm affects hyperthermic sensation. Then, we verified whether the thermal sensation of the body, including the extremities, is improved by changing the position where the wrist is warmed.
-  J. Kaczmarczyk, A. Melikov, and P. O. Fanger, “Human response to personalized ventilation and mixing ventilation,” Indoor Air, Vol.14, No.8, pp. 17-29, 2004.
-  K. Uebara and F. H. Xu, “Temperature-dependent Physio-psychological Changes by Footbath: Changes in Electroencephalogram, Cerebral Circulation, R-R Variability and Comfort,” The J. of the Japanese Society of Balneology, Climatology and Physical Medicine, Vol.67, No.2, pp. 119-129, 2004.
-  H. Nagano, H. Takahashi, S. Kato, T. Kobayashi, M. Yoshii, S. Uehara, M. Higuchi, M. Takahashi, A. Ishikawa, T. Kuroki, and N. Nozaki, “Evaluation of the Impact of Local Thermal Sensation on Productivity,” 9th Int. Meeting for Manikins and Modeling, 2012.
-  J. K. Lee, A. C. Koh, S. X. Koh, G. J. Liu, A. Q. Nio, and P. W. Fan, “Neck cooling and cognitive performance following exercise-induced hyperthermia,” Eur. J. Appl. Physiol., Vol.114, No.2, pp. 375-84, 2014.
-  H. Wang, B. Wang, K. Jackson, C. M. Miller, L. Hasadsri, D. Llano, R. Rubin, J. Zimmerman, C. Johnson, and B. Sutton, “A novel head-neck cooling device for concussion injury in contact sports,” Transl. Neurosci., Vol.6, No.1, pp. 20-31, 2015.
-  K. Jackson, R. Rubin, N. Van Hoeck, T. Hauert, V. Lana, and H. Wang, “The effect of selective head-neck cooling on physiological and cognitive functions in healthy volunteers,” Transl. Neurosci., Vol.6, No.1, pp. 131-38, doi: 10.1515/tnsci-2015-0012, 2015.
-  S. Kawakubo, Y. Kawahara, and K. Itao, “Development of the Personal Cooling System and the Contribution to Energy Saving,” Chemical Engineering, Vol.76, No.9, pp. 532-35, 2012 (in Japanese).
-  G. Lopez, Y. Kawahara, Y. Suzuki, M. Takahashi, H. Takahashi, and M. Wada, “Effect of direct neck cooling on psychological and physiological state in summer heat environment,” Mechanical Engineering J., Vol.3, No.1, pp. 1-12, 2016.
-  K. Itao, H. Hosaka, K. Kittaka, M. Takahashi, and G. Lopez, “Wearable equipment development for individually adaptive temperature-conditioning,” J. of the Japan Society for Precision Engineering, Vol.82, No.10, pp. 919-24, doi: 10.2493/jjspe.82.919, 2016 (in Japanese).
-  Japan Agency for Natural Resources and Energy, “Energy-saving behavior recommendations,” (in Japanese). http://www.enecho.meti.go.jp/category/saving_and_new/saving/general/howto/airconditioning/index.html [Accessed March 12, 2018]
-  Daikin Industries, Ltd., “21st Survey on Modern People and Air Feeling,” (in Japanese). http://www.daikin.co.jp/press/2015/150723/index.html [Accessed March 12, 2018]
-  Teikoku Databank, Ltd., “Survey on Companies Attitude Towards Warm Biz,” (in Japanese). http://www.tdb-di.com/visitors/kako_pdf/t200509.pdf [Accessed March 12, 2018]
-  G. Lopez, T. Tokuda, and N. Isoyama, “Development of a Wrist-Band Type Device for Low-Energy Consumption and Personalized Thermal Comfort,” The 17th Int. Conf. on Research and Education in Mechatronics, 2016.
-  Digitsole Corporation, “Smart shoes warm serie – how it is made –,” https://www.digitsole.com/warm-series-heated-insole/ [Accessed March 12, 2018]
-  S. Sato, “Evaluation of the Coefficient of Performance of Peltier Heating,” Salesian Polytechnic, Graduation Thesis, 2011 (in Japanese).
-  Embr Wave Wristband. https://embrlabs.com/how-it-works/ [Accessed March 12, 2018]
-  Aircon Watch. https://www.airconwatch.com/ [Accessed March 12, 2018]
-  T. Nozaki and J. Otsuka, “Reduction of Thermal Deformation in a Motor Precision Positioning Device Cooled by Peltier Elements,” Int. J. Automation Technol., Vol.7, No.5, pp. 544-549, 2013.
-  N. Zhu, S. Koshimizu, T. Nozaki, K. Taneishi, J. Otsuka, T. Shirai, T. Nishide, and T. Togashi, “Decrease of Thermal Expansion of Ball Screw Used for Precision Positioning Devices by Peltier Module Cooling Based on Feedback Method,” Int. J. Automation Technol., Vol.7, No.5, pp. 564-70, 2013.
-  TinyCircuits. https://www.tiny-circuits.com/ [Accessed January 18, 2016]
-  ISO 13732-1, “Ergonomics of the thermal environment – Methods for the assessment of human responses to contact with surfaces – Part 1: Hot surfaces,” The Int. Organization for Standardization, 2006.
-  J. G. Ziegler and N. B. Nichols, “Optimum Settings for Automatic Controllers,” Trans. ASME, Vol.64, pp. 759-768, 1942.
-  W. James, “The Principies of Psychology, Vol.2,” Dover Publications, 1950.
-  S. Schachter and J. Singer, “Cognitive, social and physiological determinants of emotional state,” Psychological Review, Vol.69, No.5, pp. 379-399, 1962.
-  S. Valins, “Cognitive Effect of False Heart-Rate Feedback,” J. of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol.4, No.4, pp. 400-408, 1966.
-  S. Sakurai, T. Narumi, T. Katsumura, T. Tanikawa, and M. Hirose, “Interactonia Balloon: Artwork Using A Balloon to Evoking and Amplifying of the Feeling of Tension by Induction of Active Breathing,” Trans. of the Virtual Reality Society of Japan, Vol.18, No.3, pp. 361-70, doi: 10.18974/tvrsj.18.3_361, 2013 (in Japanese).
-  S. Yoshida, T. Narumi, S. Sakurai, T. Tanikawa, and M. Hirose, “Manipulation of Emotional Experience by Real-time Deformed Facial Feedback,” The Trans. of Human Interface Society, Vol.17, No.1, pp. 15-25, 2015 (in Japanese).