Equilibrium Analysis of Service Ecosystems for Labor-Intensive Services Using Multi-Agent Simulation
Takeshi Takenaka*,, Takahiro Kushida*,**, Nariaki Nishino**, and Koichi Kurumatani*
*National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST)
2-3-26 Aomi, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-0064, Japan
**The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
The value of a service system should be evaluated using multiple indicators, such as company profitability, consumer satisfaction, or employee satisfaction to realize an ecosystem in society. This study examines the mechanisms of service systems with a multi-agent simulation model consisting of a company, employees, and consumers based on game theory. The proposed model is intended for a basic service business in which employees provide services to consumers directly based on their skill. In this model, first, a company player sets the price of a service and salary of employees. Then, employees decide whether to acquire resources, such as skills, with their efforts (costs) to satisfy either consumers’ needs or not. Then the employees acquire their profits (equivariant of satisfaction) not only from acquired salary but also from the reflection of consumer satisfaction. However, consumers have their needs structure, as gain tables, and decide whether and from whom to purchase. A consumer’s profit is calculated using his/her satisfaction with the service provided using a certain employee and the price paid for the service. Based on the model proposed above, we conducted a multi-agent simulation where company, employee consumer players make decision to maximize their own profits. From the basic simulation results, two convergent patterns are acquired according to the initial values of price and salary. In the second simulation, the heterogeneity of consumer needs is considered in the model based on questionnaire survey results on actual consumer behaviors related to hair salons (n=2472). With a factor analysis of 13 questionnaire items on lifestyles, four lifestyle factors are extracted. Based on the survey results, consumer players of four types are introduced into the simulation to analyze which services are selected in the service system. Through the simulation, four convergent patterns are acquired. In those patterns, consumers of different types are included according to the types of services. With those results, this paper presents a discussion of the design of a new service ecosystem through the comparison between acquired convergent solutions and existing business models.
-  M. Mochimaru, K. Ueda, and T. Takenaka (Ed.), “Serviceology for Services – Selected papers of the 1st Int. Conf. of Serviceology –,” Springer Japan, 2014.
-  K. Ueda, T. Takenaka, J. Vancza, and L. Monostori, “Value creation and decision-making in sustainable society,” CIRP Annals – Manufacturing Technology, Vol.58, Issue 2, pp. 681-700, 2009.
-  P. Kotler and K. L. Keller, “Marketing Management,” Prentice Hall. 14th ed., pp. 354-368, 2012.
-  Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, “Survey on employment trends conducted in Japan in 2014,” 2014.
-  J. L. Heskett, T. O. Jones, G. W. Loveman, W. E. Seaser, Jr., and L. A. Schlesinger, “Putting the Service-Profit Chain to Work,” Harvard Business Review, Vol.72, No.2, pp. 164-174, 2008.
-  E. W. Anderson, C. Fornell, and D. R. Lehmann, “Customer satisfaction, market share, and profitability: findings from Sweden,” J. of Marketing, Vol.58, pp. 53-66, 1994
-  C. G. Chi and D. Gursoy, “Employee satisfaction, customer satisfaction, and financial performance: An empirical examination,” Int. J. of Hospitality Management, Vol.28, Issue 2, pp. 245-253, 2009.
-  R. W. Y. Yee, A. C. L. Yeung, and T. C. E. Cheng, “The impact of employee satisfaction on quality and profitability in high-contact service industries,” J. of Operations Management, Vol.26, Issue 5, pp. 651-668, 2008.
-  K. Okuda and N. Nishino, “Membership-type Services in Manufacturing: Experiments with Human Subject and Multi-agent Simulation,” The Philosopher’s Stone for Sustainability, pp. 309-314, 2013.
-  S. Shimizu, K. Akai, and N. Nishino, “Modeling and Multi-agent simulation of Bicycle Sharing,” Serviceology for Services, pp. 39-46, 2014.
-  R. T. Rust, A. J. Zahorik, and T. L. Keiningham, “Return on quality (ROQ): making service quality financially accountable,” J. of Marketing, Vol.59, pp. 58-70, 1995.
-  R. T. Rust and R. Metters, “Mathematical models of service,” European J. of Operational Res., Vol.91, Issue 3, pp. 427-439, 1996.
-  G. Jiang, B. Hu, and Y. Wang, “Agent-based simulation of competitive and collaborative mechanisms for mobile service chains,” Information Sciences, Vol.180, Issue 2, pp. 225-240, 2010.
-  T. Takenaka and N. Nishino, “Nature of value and emergent synthesis,” Proc. of 10th CIRP Conf. on Intelligent Computation in Manufacturing Engineering – CIRP ICME’16, 2016.
-  Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, “Survey on living hygiene related sales management in Japan in 2008,” 2008.
-  Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, “Basic survey on wage structure in Japan in 2014,” 2014.
-  T. Takenaka, H. Koshiba, Y. Motomura, and K. Ueda, “Product/service variety strategy considering mixed distribution of human lifestyles,” CIRP Annals – Manufacturing Technology, Vol.62, Issue 1, pp. 463-466, 2013.
-  T. Takenaka, Y. Yamamoto, K. Fukuda, A. Kimura, and K. Ueda, “Enhancing products and services using smart appliance networks,” CIRP Annals – Manufacturing Technology, Vol.65, Issue 1, pp. 397-400, 2016.
-  N. Nishino, T. Takenaka, and H. Takahashi, “Manufacturer’s strategy in a sharing economy,” CIRP Annals – Manufacturing Technology, Vol.66, Issue 1, pp. 409-412, 2017.
-  D. Kokuryo, T. Kaihara, S. Kuik, S. Suginouchi, and K. Hirai, “Value Co-Creative Manufacturing with IoT-Based Smart Factory for Mass Customization,” Reconstruction of the Public Sphere in the Socially Mediated Age, Springer, pp. 509-518, 2017.
-  K. D. Thoben, S. Wiesner, and T. Wuest, ““Industrie 4.0” and Smart Manufacturing – A Review of Research Issues and Application Examples,” Int. J. Automation Technol., Vol.11, No.1, pp. 4-16, 2017.
-  T. Sakao, M. Lindahl, and A. Öhrwall-Rönnbäck, “Environmentally-Conscious Design Methods for Manufacturing Firms with Servicification,” Int. J. Automation Technol., Vol.3, No.1, pp. 26-32, 2009.