Using Surface Plasmon Polaritons to Analyze Flow Rate Distribution Near a Channel Surface
Miyu Ozaki*,† and Ryoshu Furutani**
*Nippon Institute of Technology
4-1 Gakuendai, Miyashiro-machi, Minamisaitama-gun, Saitama 345-8501, Japan
**Tokyo Denki University, Tokyo, Japan
Optical energy propagates along metal surfaces as collective oscillations of free electrons when those surfaces are irradiated with optical waves in accordance with the resonant condition. The oscillations with electrical fields are called surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) and are used in medium sensors. Here, using SPPs, the flow of a liquid–liquid two-phase fluid is visualized, and the flow-rate distribution is derived. A channel on a silver-film surface deposited on a glass slide is filled with an ethanol aqueous solution. SPPs are excited on the silver surface by a helium–neon laser. Then, water is injected into the channel in a laminar flow. As the water approaches the silver surface, the SPP excitation is disturbed. This disturbance is observed as decreasing reflectance, from which we can estimate the distance between the water layer and the silver surface. The method does not require any tracer particles or coloring even though the sample fluids are clear and colorless.
-  C. Nylander, B. Liedberg, and T. Lind, “Gas detection by means of surface plasmon resonance,” Sensors Actuators, Vol.3, pp. 79-88, 1982.
-  K. Matsubara, S. Kawata, and S. Minami, “Optical chemical sensor based on surface plasmon measurement,” Appl. Opt., Vol 27, pp. 1160-1163, 1988.
-  Y. Mizutani and T. Iwata, “Thin Film Thickness Measurement by Surface Plasmon Resonance Using a Modified Otto’s Configuration Combined with Ellipsometry,” Int. J. of Automation Technology, Vol.5, pp. 236-240, 2011.
-  V. E. Ferry, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonic nanostructure design for efficient light coupling into solar cells,” Nano Lett. Vol.8, pp. 4391-4397, 2008.
-  G. Volpe, R. Quidant, G. Badenes, and D. Petrov, “Surface plasmon radiation forces,” Phys. Rev. Lett., Vol.96, p. 238101, 2006.
-  M. Fleischmann, P. J. Hendra, and A. J. McQuillan, “Raman spectra of pyridine adsorbed at a silver electrode,” Chem Phys Lett., Vol.26, pp. 163-166, 1974.
-  T. Okamoto, F. H’Dhili, and S. Kawata, “Towards plasmonic band gap laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett., Vol.85, pp. 3968-3970, 2004.
-  N. I. Zheludev, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and V. A. Fedotov, “Lasing spaser,” Nature Photon., Vol.2, pp. 351-354, 2008.
-  N. Hayazawa, Y. Inouye, Z. Sekkat, and S. Kawata, “Metallized tip amplification of near-field Raman scattering,” Opt. Commun., Vol.183, pp. 333-336, 2000.
-  A. N. Grigorenko, N. W. Roberts, M. R. Dickinson, and Y. Zhang, “Nanometric optical tweezers based on nanostructured substrates,” Nat. Photon., Vol.2, pp. 365-370, 2008.
-  E. Sugawara, J. Kato, Y. Yamagata, M. Ozaki, and R. Furutani, “Plasmonic trapping of sub-micro objects with metallic antenas,” J. of Optics, Vol.18, p. 075001, 2016.
-  A. Ono, J. Kato, and S. Kawata, “Subwavelength optical imaging through a metallic nanorod array,” Phys. Rev. Lett., Vol.95, p. 267407, 2005.
-  S. Kawata, Y. Inouye, and P. Verma, “Plasmonics for near-field nano-imaging and superlensing,” Nature Photon., Vol.3, pp. 388-394, 2009.
-  M. Ozaki, J. Kato, and S. Kawata, “Surface-plasmon holography with white light illumination,” Science, Vol.332, pp. 218-220, 2011.
-  M. Ozaki, J. Kato, and S. Kawata, “Blur suppression in holographic imaging with use of surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. Vol.101, p. 241117, 2012.
-  J. Feng, T. Okamoto, and S. Kawata, “Highly directional emission via coupled surface-plasmon tunneling from electroluminescence in organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett., Vol.87, p. 241109, 2005.
-  C. Loo, A. Lowery, N. Halas, J. West, and R. Drezek, “Immunotargeted nanoshells for integrated cancer imaging and therapy,” Nano Lett. Vol.5, pp. 709-711, 2005.
-  Y. Iwasaki, T. Tobita, K. Kurihara, T. Horiuchi, K. Koji, and O. Niwa, “Imaging of flow pattern in micro flow channel using surface plasmon resonance,” Meas. Sci. Technol. Vol.17, pp. 3184-3188, 2006.
-  H. Raether, “Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings,” Springer-Verlag, 1988.
-  R. Belda, J. V. Herraez, and O. Diez, “A study of the refractive index tension synergy of the binary water/ethanol: influence of concentration,” Phys. Chem. Liq., Vol.43, pp. 91-101, 2013.
-  National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Chronological Scientific Tables, in Japanese, Maruzen, 2013.
-  E. Hecht, Optics, 4th ed., Chap. 9, Pearson Education, 2002.
-  J. P. Hartnett, J. C. Y. Koh, and S. T. McComas, “A comparison of predicted and measured friction factors for turbulent flow through rectangular ducts,” J. Heat Trans., Vol.84, pp. 82-88, 1962.
This article is published under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 Internationa License.