single-au.php

IJAT Vol.8 No.5 pp. 723-732
doi: 10.20965/ijat.2014.p0723
(2014)

Paper:

Fuel Operated Heaters Applied to Electric Vehicles

Tetsushi Mimuro* and Hiroyuki Takanashi*,**

*Faculty of Systems Science and Technology, Akita Prefectural University, 84-4 Ebinokuchi, Tsuchiya, Yurihonjo, Akita 015-0055, Japan

**College of Engineering, Nihon University, 1 Nakagawara, Tokusada, Tamuramachi, Koriyama, Fukushima 963-8642, Japan

Received:
April 5, 2014
Accepted:
July 23, 2014
Published:
September 5, 2014
Keywords:
electric vehicle, air conditioning, PTC heater, heat pump heater, fuel operated heater
Abstract

In recent years, numerous automobile manufacturers have been pursuing the development of Electric Vehicles (EVs) as a response to environmental problems such as global warming. Such EVs usually have shorter ranges than Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) vehicles because of their limited battery capacity. This problem is exacerbated in the winter, especially in cold districts, as the need for electricity to heat vehicle cabins results in drastic mileage reductions. One readily available solution to this problem is the use of Fuel-Operated Heaters (FOHs), and in this study we have performed field operation tests on such heaters retrofitted into mass-produced EVs. The pros and cons of FOH use with EVs will be discussed in comparison with Positive Temperature Coefficient (PTC) and heat pump heaters from the viewpoints of energy efficiency, carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, heating performance, mileage influence, and usability.

Cite this article as:
T. Mimuro and H. Takanashi, “Fuel Operated Heaters Applied to Electric Vehicles,” Int. J. Automation Technol., Vol.8, No.5, pp. 723-732, 2014.
Data files:
References
  1. [1] M. Okushima and T. Akiyama, “Multi-agent transport simulation model for eco-commuting promotion planning,” J. of Advanced Computational Intelligence and Intelligent Informatics, Vol.15, No.7, pp. 911-918, 2011.
  2. [2] C. Huang, Y. Hung, and G. Tzeng, “Using hybrid MCDM methods to assess fuel cell technology for the next generation of hybrid power automobiles,” J. of Advanced Computational Intelligence and Intelligent Informatics, Vol.15, No.4, pp. 406-417, 2011.
  3. [3] D. Yamashita, R. Yokoyama, and T. Niimura, “Thermal unit scheduling for CO2 reduction including wind power and electric vehicles,” J. of Advanced Computational Intelligence and Intelligent Informatics, Vol.17, No.1, pp. 109-115, 2013.
  4. [4] H. Fukushima, H. Koike, and T. Tanaka, “Overseas trials of “i-MiEV” new-generation electric vehicle,” Mitsubishi Motors Technical Review, No.22, pp. 15-22, 2010.
  5. [5] H. Lohse-Busch, M. Duoba, E. Rask, K. Stutenberg, V. Gowri, L. Slezak, and D. Anderson, “Ambient temperature (20°F, 72°F and 95°F) impact on fuel and energy consumption for several conventional vehicles, hybrid and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and battery electric vehicle,” SAE Paper #2013-01-1462, 2013.
  6. [6] G. Gao, “Investigation of climate control power consumption in DTE estimation for electric vehicles,” SAE Paper #2014-01-0713, 2014.
  7. [7] M. D. Gennaro, E. Paffumi, G. Martini, U. Manfredi, H. Scholz, H. Lacher, H. Kuehnelt, and D. Simic, “Experimental investigation of the energy efficiency of an electric vehicle in different driving conditions,” SAE Paper #2014-01-1817, 2014.
  8. [8] H. Nasution and M. N. W. Hassan, “Potential electricity savings by variable speed control of compressor for air conditioning systems,” HNICEM 2005.
  9. [9] S. Fujiwara, H. Moriwaki, A. kojima, Y. Fukuda, K. Sasaki, and S. Koyanagi, “Development of grip heaters for motorcycles,” MITSUBISHI CABLE INDUSTRIES REVIEW, No.102, pp. 21-24, 2005.
  10. [10] S. Shahidinejad, E. Bibeau, and S. Filizadeh, “Design and simulation of a thermal management system for plug-in electric vehicles in cold climates,” SAE Paper #2012-01-0118, 2012.
  11. [11] P. Revereault, C. Rouaud, and A.MarchI, “Fuel economy and cabin heating improvements thanks to thermal management solutions installed in a diesel hybrid electric vehicle,” SAE Paper #2010-01-0800, 2010.
  12. [12] T. Nozawa, T. Mimuro, and H. Takanashi, “Field operation tests on electric vehicle energy consumption in mountainous and cold district,” APAC 2013-1-0129, 2013.
  13. [13] “Next-Generation Vehicle Field Test in Tazawako and Its Outskirts Area,” Final Report of Akita Next-Generation Vehicle Consortium for Field Test, Akita Prefectural University, 2012,
    http://www.akita-pu.ac.jp/stic/ev-consortium/ [accessed on July 1, 2014]. (in Japanese)
  14. [14] M. Nemesh, M. Martinchick, and S. Ibri, “Cabin heating and windshield defrosting for extended range electric, pure electric, & plugin hybrid vehicles,” SAE Paper #2012-01-0121, 2012.
  15. [15] “PTC Heater for Electric Vehicles and Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles Using Water Heat Carrier,” Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Technical Review, Vol.46, No.4, pp. 19-21, 2010.
  16. [16] K. Umezu and H. Noyama, “Air-conditioning system for electric vehicles (i-MiEV),” SAE Automotive Refrigerant & System Efficiency Symp., 2010.
  17. [17] S. Nakane, M. Kadoi, H. Seto, and K. Umezu, “Air-conditioning system for electric vehicle,” J. of Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan, Vol.64, No.4, pp. 35-40, Apr. 2010.
  18. [18] T. Furumaya, T. Uehara, T. Matsuoka, and T. Yen, “Development of energy-saving climate system for EV,” J. of Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan, Vol.65, No.12, pp. 30-34, Dec. 2011.
  19. [19] R. Yan, J. Shi, H. Qing, J. Chen, and J. Song, “Experimental study on heat exchangers in heat pump system for electric vehicles,” SAE Paper #2014-01-0696, 2014.
  20. [20] Y. Hagiwara, K. Ito, M. Sakai, and N. Ioi, “Feature and trend of an air-conditioning system for Electric Vehicles,” DENSO Technical Review, Vol.16, pp. 83-89, 2011. (in Japanese)
  21. [21] T. Kondo, A. Katayama, H. Suetake, M. Morishita, “Development of Automotive Air-Conditioning Systems by Heat Pump Technology,” MHI Technical Review, Vol.48, No.2, pp. 27-32, 2011.
  22. [22] Heat-Pump Cabin Heater, http://www.nissan-global.com/EN/TECHNOLOGY/OVERVIEW/heat_pump_cabin_heater.html [accessed on July 1, 2014].
  23. [23] U. Kohle, W. Pfister, and R. Apfelbeck, “Bioethanol heater for the passenger compartments of electric automobiles,” ATZ Vol.114, 2012.
  24. [24] “Installation Instructions,” Webasto Thermo & Comfort SE.
  25. [25] B. Bossdorf-Zimmer, S. Krinke, and T. L. Horst, “The Well-To-Wheel Analysis,” ATZ autotechnology, Vol.12, 2012.
  26. [26] H. Yoshida, “The advance of electric vehicles in the new energy age,” Mitsubishi Motors Technical Review, No.22, 2010.
  27. [27] “Report on overall energy efficiency,” JHFC overall energy efficiency working grooup, 2006,
    www.jari.or.jp/Portals/0/jhfc/data/report/2005/pdf/result_main.pdf [accessed on July 1, 2014]
  28. [28] T. Mimuro, H. Takanashi, T. Nozawa, S. Sato, S. Scheiner, and M. Watanabe, “Fuel operated heaters for electric vehicles, installation and evaluation,” Proc. of EcoDesign 2013 Int. Symp., O-F-6, Dec. 2013.

*This site is desgined based on HTML5 and CSS3 for modern browsers, e.g. Chrome, Firefox, Safari, Edge, IE9,10,11, Opera.

Last updated on Nov. 19, 2019