Current Situation and Problems for Representation of Tolerance and Surface Texture in 3D CAD Model
Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, Hokkaido University, Kita-14, Nishi-9, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0814, Japan
This paper explores current problems in representing of tolerances and surface textures in 3D computeraided design (CAD) models. Today, all available 3D product data, such as dimensioning and tolerance, are not used in digital form throughout the product development processes. Tolerance and surface texture data for product are very important in design data. In downstream processes, such as process planning and manufacturing, such data are referenced to determine machining processes and process parameters. In inspection, such data provide criteria for verifying functionality of the machined product based on measurement results. Previously, such data were communicated using 2D drawing and not included in 3D CAD data.3D models are widely used and demand is increasing for the annotations in 3D model, e.g., standard for the digital product definition data practices was developed by ISO, and the guidelines for 3D drawing were developed by the automobile industry. This paper explores needs and requirements of tolerance and surface texture representations which are associated with 3D CAD data in product development processes, together with current status, problems, and future works in representing tolerances and surface textures associated with 3D CAD data.
-  ISO 16792, “Technical product documentation – Digital product definition data practices,” International Organization for Standardization, 2006.
-  J. Shah and M. Mantyla, “Parametric and Feature-based CAD/CAM,” Johnm Wiley & Sons, 1995.
-  S. Pehlivan and J. Summers, “A review of computer-aided fixture design with respect to information support requirements,” International journal of Production Research, Vol.46, No.4, pp. 929-947, 2008.
-  B. Routara, A. Bandyopadhyay, and P. Sahoo, “Roughness modelling and optimization in CNC end milling using response surface method; effect of workpiece material variation,” International journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol.40, Nos.11-12, pp. 1166-1180, 2009.
-  F. Zhao, X. Xu, and S. Xie, “Computer-Aided Inspection Planning – The state of the art,” Computers in Industry, Vol.60, No.7, pp. 453-466, 2009.
-  ASME Y14.41, “Digital product definition data practices,” The American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 2003.
-  Z. Humienn, “State of art in standardization in GPS area,” CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology, Vol.2, No.1, pp. 1-7, 2009.
-  ISO/TS 17450-1, “Geometrical product specifications (GPS) – General concepts – Part 1: Model for geometrical specification and verification,” International Organization for Standardization, 2005.
-  Wikipedia,
Product Manufacturing Information.
-  V. Srinivasan, “Standardizing the specification, verification, and exchange of product geometry: Research, status and trends,” Computer-Aided Design, Vol.40, No.7, pp. 738-749, 2008.
-  ISO 10303-214, “Industrial automation systems and integration – Product data representation and exchange – Part 214: Application protocol: Core data for automotive mechanical design processes,” International Organization for Standardization, 2001.
-  J.-Y. Dantan, A. Ballu, and L. Mathieu, “Geometrical product specifications – model for product life cycle,” Computer-Aided Design, Vol.40, No.4, pp. 493-501, 2008.
This article is published under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 Internationa License.