Weight-Perception-Based Model of Power Assist System for Lifting Objects
S. M. Mizanoor Rahman*, Ryojun Ikeura*, Masaya Nobe*,
Soichiro Hayakawa*, and Hideki Sawai**
*Division of Mechanical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Mie University, Tsu, Mie 514-8507, Japan
**Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Mie University, Tsu, Mie 514-8507, Japan
This paper deals with the design and control of a power assist system for lifting objects based on weight perception. We considered vertical lifting force (load force) as the desired dynamics for lifting objects with the power assist system. Load force consists of inertial force and gravitational force. We hypothesized that weight perception due to inertial force may differ from perceived weight due to gravitational force for lifting objects with a power assist system. Based on this hypothesis, we designed a 1-degree-of-freedom (DOF) (vertical up-down) power assist system and determined a psychophysical relationship between actual weights and power-assisted weights for lifted objects. We also determined the excess in the load forces that subjects applied when lifting objects with the system. The excessive load force causes problems such as sudden high acceleration of the lifted object, user safety and other concerns while lifting the object, loss of system maneuverability and stability, and possibly fatal accidents. We modified the power-assist control based on the psychophysical relationship and the load force characteristics. Modifying control reduced the excess in load forces and significantly enhanced maneuverability, naturalness, ease of use, stability, and safety. We proposed using the findings to design industrial power assist systems for transporting heavy objects in various industries such as assembly and manufacturing, mining, logistics and transport, construction, disaster management and rescue, and military operations.
-  M. M. Rahman, R. Ikeura, and K. Mizutani, “Investigation of the Impedance Characteristic of Human Arm for Development of Robots to Cooperate with Humans,” JSME Int. J., Series C, Vol.45, No.2, pp. 510-518, 2002.
-  C. Burghart, S. Yigit, O. Kerpa, D. Osswald, and H. Woern, “Concept for Human-Robot Cooperation Integrating Artificial Haptic Perception,” in Intelligent Autonomous Systems 7, M. Gini, W. Shen, C. Torras and H. Yuasa, Ed. IOS Press, pp. 38-45, 2002.
-  R. Koeppe, D. Engelhardt, A. Hagenauer, P. Heiligensetzer, B. Kneifel, A. Knipfer, and K. Stoddard, “Robot-Robot and Human-Robot Cooperation in Commercial Robotics Applications,” in Robotics Research, STAR 15, P. Dario and R. Chatila, Ed., pp. 202-216, 2005.
-  H. A. Yanco and J. Drury, “Classifying Human-Robot Interaction: An Updated Taxonomy,” in Proc. of the 2004 IEEE Int. Conf. on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, Vol.3, pp. 2841-2846, 2004.
-  H. Kazerooni, “Stability and Performance of Robotic Systems Worn by Humans,” in Proc. of the 1990 IEEE Int. Conf. on Robotics and Automation, Vol.1, pp. 558-563, 1990.
-  H. Kazerooni, “Extender: A Case Study for Human-Robot Interaction via Transfer of Power and Information Signals,” in Proc. of the 2nd IEEE Int. Workshop on Robot and Human Communication, pp. 10-20, 1993.
-  D. Chugo, H. Kaetsu, N. Miyake, K. Kawabata, H. Asama, and K. Kosuge, “Force Assistance System for Standing-Up Motion,” in Proc. of the 2006 IEEE Int. Conf. on Mechatronics and Automation, pp. 1103-1108, 2006.
-  K. Kiguchi, “Actuated Artificial Joints for Human Motion Assist - An Inner Skeleton Robot,” in Proc. of the First IEEE Technical Exhibition Based Conf. (TExCRA '04.) on Robotics and Automation, pp. 29-30, 2004.
-  H. Kitagawa, T. Nishigaki, T. Miyoshi, and K. Terashima, “Fuzzy Power Assist Control System for Omni-Directional Transport Wheelchair,” in Proc. of the 2004 IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. on Intelligent Robots and Systems, Vol.2, pp. 1580-1585, 2004.
-  D. Sasaki, T. Noritsugu, and M. Takaiwa, “Development of Wearable Power Assist Device Constructed with Pneumatic Artificial Rubber Muscle,” in Proc. of the 2004 First IEEE Technical Exhibition Based Conf. on Robotics and Automation, pp. 23-24, 2004.
-  Y. Hayashibara, Y. Sonoda, T. Takubo, H. Arai, and K. Tanie, “Assist System for Carrying a Long Object with a Human-Analysis of a Human Cooperative Behavior in the Vertical Direction,” in Proc. of 1999 IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. on Intelligent Robots and Systems, Vol.2, pp. 695-700, 1999.
-  H. Lee, T. Takubo, H. Arai, and K. Tanie, “Control of Mobile Manipulators for Power Assist Systems,” J. of Robotic Systems, Vol.17, No.9, pp. 469-477, 2000.
-  N. Peter and H. Kazerooni, “Industrial-Strength Human-Assisted Walking Robots,” IEEE Robotics & Automation Magazine, Vol.8, No.4, pp. 18-25, 2001.
-  T. Takubo, H. Arai, Y. Hayashibara, and K. Tanie, “Human-Robot Cooperative Manipulation Using a Virtual Nonholonomic Constraint,” The Int.l J. of Robotics Research, Vol.21, pp. 541-553, 2002.
-  T. Miyoshi and K. Terashima, “Development of Vertical Power-Assisted Crane System to Reduce the Operators' Burden,” in Proc. of the 2004 IEEE Int. Conf. on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, Vol.5, pp. 4420-4425, 2004.
-  H. Kazerooni, “Exoskeletons for Human Power Augmentation,” in Proc. of the 2005 IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS 2005), pp. 3459-3464, 2005.
-  T. Doi, H. Yamada, T. Ikemoto, and H. Naratani, “Simulation of Pneumatic Hand Crane Type Power Assist System,” in Proc. of the SICE Annual Conf., 2007, Japan, pp. 2321-2326, 2007.
-  A. M. Gordon, H. Forssberg, R. S. Johansson, and G. Westling, “Visual Size Cues in the Programming of Manipulative Forces during Precision Grip,” Experimental Brain Research, Vol.83, No.3, pp. 477-482, 1991.
-  T. Amemiya and T. Maeda, “Asymmetric Oscillation Distorts the Perceived Heaviness of Handheld Objects,” IEEE Trans. on Haptics, Vol.1, No.1, pp. 9-18, 2008.
-  E. C. Chang, J. R. Flanagan, and M. A. Goodale, “The Intermanual Transfer of Anticipatory Force Control in Precision Grip Lifting Is Not Influenced by the Perception of Weight,” Experimental Brain Research, Vol.185, No.2, pp. 319-29, 2008.
-  E. C. Chang and M. A. Goodale, “Size-Weight Illusion Dissociates From Grip Forces When Objects Lifted From Other Hand,” J. of Vision Vol.6, No.6, pp. 861-861a, 2006.
-  C. Giachritsis and A. Wing, “Unimanual and Bimanual Weight Discrimination in a Desktop Setup,” M. Ferre (Ed.): EuroHaptics 2008, LNCS 5024, pp. 378-382, 2008.
-  S. Kawai, V. A. Summers, C. L. MacKenzie, C. J. Ivens, and T. Yamamoto, “Grasping an Augmented Object to Analyze Manipulative Force Control,” Ergonomics Vol.45, No.15, pp. 1091-1102, 2002.
-  O. E. Marc and S. B. Martin, “Humans Integrate Visual and Haptic Information in a Statistically Optimal Fashion,” Nature Vol.415, No.6870, pp. 429-433, 2002.
-  V. M. Zatsiorsky, F. Gao, and M. L. Latash, “Motor Control Goes Beyond Physics: Differential Effects of Gravity and Inertia on Finger Forces During Manipulation of Hand-Held Objects,” Experimental Brain Research Vol.162, No.3, pp. 300-308, 2005.
-  L. Dominjon, A. Lécuyer, J. M. Burkhardt, P. Richard, and S. Richir, “Influence of Control/Display Ratio on the Perception of Mass of Manipulated Objects in Virtual Environments,” in Proc. of the IEEE Virtual Reality 2005 (VR'05), pp. 19-25, 2005.
-  S. G. Charlton and T. G. O'Brien, “Handbook of Human Factors Testing and Evaluation,” Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc., New Jersey, 1996, ch. 5, pp. 81-99.
-  H. Seki, M. Iso, and Y. Hori, “How to Design Force Sensorless Power Assist Robot Considering Environmental Characteristics-Position Control Based or Force Control Based,” in Proc. of the 28th Annual Conf. of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society (IECON02), Vol.3, pp. 2255-2260, 2002.
-  H. Kobayashi, R. Ikeura, and H. Inooka, “Evaluating the Maneuverability of a Control Stick Using Electromyography,” Biological Cybernetics, Vol.75, No.1, pp. 11-18, 1996.
-  P. S. Lum, D. J. Reinkensmeyer, and S. L. Lehman, “Robotic Assist Devices for Bimanual Physical Therapy: Preliminary Experiments,” IEEE Trans. on Rehabilitation Engineering, Vol.1, No.3, pp. 185-191, 1993.
-  H. Kato, R. Ikeura, S. Noguchi, K. Mizutani, H. Nakamura, and T. Honda, “Impedance Control for an Industrial Power Assist Device Considering Contact Operations,” Trans. of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers, Series C, Vol.72, No.714, pp. 214-221, 2006-2 (in Japanese).
-  L. J. Garrison and J. G. Chen, “A Biomechanical-Psychophysical Model of the Lifting Task,” in Proc. of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 39th Annual Meeting, pp. 684-688(5), 1995.
-  A. M. Genaidy and A. Houshyar, “Biomechanical Tolerance Limits for Manual Lifting Tasks: A Tool to Control Back Injuries,” in Proc. of the Annual Int. Conf. of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, Vol.3, pp. 803-805, 1989.
This article is published under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 Internationa License.