3D Dynamic Biped Walker with Flat Feet and Ankle Springs: Passive Gait Analysis and Extension to Active Walking
Tetsuya Kinugasa*, Takashi Ito**, Hiroaki Kitamura*, Kazuhiro Ando*, Shinsaku Fujimoto*, Koji Yoshida*, and Masatsugu Iribe***
*Okayama University of Science
1-1 Ridai-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-0005, Japan
**Chiba Machine Industry Corporation
155-26 Toyofuta, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-0872, Japan
***Osaka Electro-Communication University
18-8 Hatsu-cho, Neyagawa, Osaka 572-8530, Japan
In the last two decades, passive dynamic walking (PDW) has attracted considerable research attention. The assumption that biped walking is based on PDW is now widely accepted. PDW bipeds change their gait to adapt to changes in body configuration and environment, and their efficiency is extremely high. PDW is generally difficult to realize because it lacks robustness. This means, for one thing, that biped walkers capable of PDW must be designed carefully. Once realized, however, the PDW bipeds are expected to have a suitable configuration for biped walking. This study then aims to analyze the fundamental properties of 3D PDW with flat soles and ankle springs and to use these properties to extend it to a horizontal surface. First, we develop a stable and relatively robust 3D PDW biped that has flat soles and ankle springs. Some sensors are implemented in order to measure the posture and the ZMP trajectory. Next, we investigate the relationship between its gait and the CoM position of each leg. We then attach a ballast to the leg to change the CoM, which effectively results in walking stability. Finally, a 3D active biped, whose knees consist of telescopic joints, is developed based on the 3D PDW biped.
-  T. McGeer, “Passive Dynamic Walking,” CSS-IS TR, 88-02, 1988.
-  K. Narioka and K. Hosda, “Study on Locomotion of Musculoskeletal Humanoid,” J. of Robotics Society of Japan, Vol.30, No.1, pp. 8-13, 2012.
-  M. Wisse et al., “Ankle springs instead of arc-shaped feet for passive dynamic walkers,” Proc. of HUMANOIDS 06, pp. 110-116, 2006.
-  T. Kinugasa et al., “3D Passive Walker with Sprung Ankle Springs and Flat Foot: A design method by natural frequency index without yaw and roll compensator,” Proc. of 2008 JSME Conf. on Robotics and Mechatronics, 1P1-B12, 2008.
-  T. Kinugasa et al., “3D Passive Walker with Ankle Springs and Flat Feet,” J. of Robotics Society of Japan, Vol.27, No.10, pp. 1169-1172, 2009.
-  T. Kinugasa and K. Yoshida, “3D Passive Dynamic Walkers with Flat Feet and Ankle Springs: Experiment and Analysis For Longer and More Stable Step,” Proc. of Int. Symp. on Mobiligence, pp. 425-430, 2009.
-  T. Kinugasa et al., “Experimental Analysis of 3D Passive Dynamic Walking: body’s shape, CoM and stability,” Proc. of SICE Annual Conf. 2010, pp. 1825-1830, 2010.
-  K. Yokoyama et al., “Experimental Study of 3D Passive Biped Robot with Flat Feet and Ankle Springs,” Proc. of The 26th Annual Conf. of RSJ, RSJ2008AC3B1-02, 2008.
-  T. Narukawa et al., “Design and Construction of a Simple 3D Straight-Legged Passive Walker with Flat Feet and Ankle Springs,” J. of System Design and Dynamics, Vol.3, No.1, pp. 1-12, 2009.
-  S. H. Collins, M. Wisse, and A. Ruina, “A Three-Dimensional Passive-Dynamic Walking Robot with Two Legs and Knees,” Int. J. of Robotics Research, Vol.20, No.2, pp. 607-615, 2001.
-  K. Hyodo et al., “Outdoor Environments Walking by Biped Passive Dynamic Walker with Constraint Mechanism,” J. of Robotics and Mechatronics, Vol.22, No.3, pp. 363-370, 2010.
-  K. Narioka and K. Hosoda, “Designing synergistic walking of a whole-body humanoid driven by pneumatic artificial muscles: An empirical study,” Advanced Robotics, Vol.22, No.10, pp. 1107-1123, 2008.
-  K. Hosoda et al., “Biped Robot Design Powered by Antagonistic Pneumatic Actuators for Multi-Modal Locomotion,” Robotics and Autonomous Systems, Vol.56, No.1, pp. 46-53, 2008.
-  R. Ito et al., “An Experimental Study of Pseudo Passive Locomotion,” The 19th Annual Conf. of the robotics Society of Japan, pp. 835-836, 2001.
-  K. Ono et al., “Self-excited walking of a biped mechanism,” Int. J. of Robotics Research, Vol.23, No.1, pp. 55-68, 2004.
-  F. Asano and Z. Ruo, “Parametrically Excited Dynamic Walking Control of Telescopic Legged Robot,” J. of Robotics Society of Japan, Vol.23, No.7, pp. 144-152, 2005.
-  T. Kinugasa et al., “Biped Walking by Variations of Knee Lengths and Attitude Control of a Body and its Frequency Analysis,” J. of Robotics Society of Japan, Vol.25, No.3, pp. 440-447, 2007.
-  T. Kinugasa et al., “Frequency Analysis for Biped Walking via Leg Length Variation,” J. of Robotics and Mechatronics, Vol.20, No.1, 2008.
-  I. Hamamoto et al., “Development of Flexible Displacement Sensor Using Nylon String Coated with Carbon and Its Application for McKibben Actuator,” Proc. Of SICE/ICASE Int. Joint Conf. 2006, pp. 1943-1946, 2006.
-  S. Nishiyama et al., “Estimation of zero moment point trajectory during human gait locomotion based on a three-dimensional rigid-link model,” Technical report of IECE, Vol.101, No.734, pp. 59-64, 2002.
-  R. Pfeifer and J. Bongard, “How the body shapes the way we think: a new view of intelligence,” MIT press, 2007.
This article is published under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.