Application of “Planar Muscle” with Soft Skin-Like Outer Function Suitable for Musculoskeletal Humanoid
Masahiko Osada, Hironori Mizoguchi, Yuki Asano,
Toyotaka Kozuki, Junichi Urata, Yuto Nakanishi,
Kei Okada, and Masayuki Inaba
Department of Mechano-Informatics, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656, Japan
In recent years, human-like robots have received a lot of attentions. A musculoskeletal humanoid is an effective approach for making a human-like robot, and many musculoskeletal humanoids have been developed. However, none have been equipped with really human-like bones and muscles, especially shapes and alignments. Formaking really human-like musculoskeletal humanoids, we thought of the “planar muscle” as the key. A planar muscle is an enhanced wiredriven system in which a motor winds a wire. In a prior system, one motor controlled one wire and the linear muscle needed one motor per wire and complex control systems. We therefore developed the planar muscle that controlled several wires simultaneously by using two moving pulley bars and one motor. The planar muscle is suited to musculoskeletal humanoids because they need a lot of motors and complex control systems in the case of using linear muscles. Furthermore, planar muscles are useful for soft skin-like outers that protect external shocks and sense touch. Using the planar muscles, we are developing a new musculoskeletal humanoid that has human-like bones and muscles. In this paper, we show the planarmuscle concept, especially its soft skin-like outer functions, and evaluate its motion with a body trunk model having multiple vertebrae that we developed.
Toyotaka Kozuki, Junichi Urata, Yuto Nakanishi,
Kei Okada, and Masayuki Inaba, “Application of “Planar Muscle” with Soft Skin-Like Outer Function Suitable for Musculoskeletal Humanoid,” J. Robot. Mechatron., Vol.24, No.6, pp. 1080-1088, 2012.
-  R. Pfeifer and J. Bongard, “How the body shapes the way we think,” MIT Press, 2007.
-  K. Narioka, R. Niiyamaa, Y. Ishii, and K. Hosoda, “Pneumatic musculoskeletal infant robots,” in The 2009 IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. on Intelligent Robots and Systems, 2009.
-  D. Sakamoto and H. Ishiguro, “Geminoid: Remote-controlled android system for studying human presence,” Kansei Engineering International, Vol.8, No.1, pp. 3-9, 2009.
-  Y. Sakagami, R. Watanabe, C. Aoyama, S. Matsunaga, N. Higaki, and K. Fujimura, “The intelligent asimo:system overview and integration,” in Proce. of The 2002 IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. on Intelligent Robots and Systems, pp. 2478-2483, 2002.
-  B. Tondu, S. Ippolito, J. Guiochet, and A. Daidie, “A seven-degreesof-freedom robot-arm driven by pneumatic artificial muscles for humanoid robots,” in The Int. J. of Robotics Research 2005, p. 257, 2005.
-  H. Marques, M. Jäntsch, S. Wittmeier, C. Alessandro, O. Holland, C. Alessandro, A. Diamond, M. Lungarella, and R. Knight, “Ecce1: the first of a series of anthropomimetic musculoskeletal upper torsos,” in Proc. of Int. Conf. on Humanoid Robots, pp. 391-396, 2010.
-  I. Mizuuchi, T. Yoshikai, Y. Sodeyama, Y. Nakanishi, A. Miyadera, T. Yamamoto, T. Niemelä, M. Hayashi, J. Urata, Y. Namiki, T. Nishino, and M. Inaba, “Development of musculoskeletal humanoid kotaro,” in Proc. of The 2006 IEEE Int. Conf. on Robotics and Automation, pp. 82-87, May 2006.
-  I. Mizuuchi, Y. Nakanishi, Y. Sodeyama, Y. Namiki, T. Nishino, N. Muramatsu, J. Urata, K. Hongo, T. Yoshikai, and M. Inaba, “An advanced musculoskeletal humanoid kojiro,” in Proc. of the 2007 IEEE-RAS Int. Conf. on Humanoid Robots (Humanoids 2007), December 2007.
-  O. Masahiko, I. Nobuyuki, N. Yuto, and I. Masayuki, “Stiffness readout in musculo-skeletal humanoid robot by using rotary potentiometer,” in Proc. of the 9th Annual IEEE Int. Conf. on Sensors, pp. 2329-2333, 2010.
-  K. Hyodo and H. Kobayashi, “A study on tendon controlled wrist mechanism with nonlinear spring tensioner,” J. of the Robotics Society of Japan, Vol.11, No.8, pp. 1244-1251, 1993.
-  N. Hogan, “Impedance control: An approach to manipulator, part 1-3,” Trans. ASME, J. of Dynamic of Dynamic Systems, Measurement and Control, Vol.107, pp. 1-24, 1985.
-  K. F. Laurin-Kovitz, J. E. Colgate, and S. D. R. Carnes, “Design of components for programmable passive impedance,” in Proc. of the 1991 IEEE Int. Conf. on Robotics & Automation, Sacramento, California, pp. 1476-1481, April 1991.
-  T. Sugaiwa, H. Iwata, and S. Sugano, “New visco-elastic mechanism design for flexible joint manipulator,” in Proc. of the 2008 IEEE/ASME Int. Conf. on Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics, pp. 235-240, July 2008.
-  O. Eiberger, S. Hddadin, M. Weis, A. Albu-schaffer, and G. Hirzinger, “On joint design with intrinsic variable compliance: Derivation of the DLR QA-joint,” in Proc. of the 2010 IEEE Int. Conf. on Robotics & Automation, 2010.
-  T. Izawa, Y. Nakanishi, N. Ito, M. Osada, K. Hongo, S. Ohta, T. Yoshikai, K. Okada, and M. Inaba, “Development of stiffness changeable multijoint cervical structure with soft sensor flesh for musculo-skeletal humanoids,” in Proc. of the 2010 IEEE-RAS Int. Conf. on Humanoid Robots (Humanoids 2010), pp. 665-670. December 2010.
-  J. Kohara (Ed.), “Idea from Human Engineering: Research for Life Quality,” Japan: Koudan-sha Press, 1982.
-  Y. Namiki, Y. Nakanishi, J. Urata, Y. Sodeyama, I. Mizuuchi, and M. Inaba, “Design and implementation of the torso consisting of spine and pelvis of musculo-skeletal humanoid ’kojiro’,” in Proc. of the 2007 IEEE-RAS Int. Conf. on Humanoid Robots (Humanoids 2007), December 2007.
-  D. R. Wilkie, “The relation between force and velocity in human muscle,” The J. of physiology, Vol.110, No.3-4, pp. 249-280, 1949.
This article is published under a Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Copyright© 2012 by Fuji Technology Press Ltd. and Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers. All right reserved.