JDR Vol.17 No.6 pp. 1023-1036
doi: 10.20965/jdr.2022.p1023


Development of a Scale for Disaster-Prevention Consciousness – Structure of Disaster-Prevention Consciousness of Those Who Lack Expertise in Disaster Prevention

Kan Shimazaki*,† and Miki Ozeki**

*National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Resilience (NIED)
3-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0006, Japan

Corresponding author

**Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Okayama University, Okayama, Japan

February 9, 2018
June 8, 2022
October 1, 2022
disaster-prevention consciousness, psychological scale, factor analysis

Despite the necessity of improving disaster-prevention consciousness, there are no studies on the definition of disaster-prevention consciousness. Several scales have been developed for the measurement of disaster-prevention consciousness, but some problems are recognized. For example, such scale measures do not consider disaster-prevention consciousness but the knowledge and behavior related to disaster prevention. For this problem, Ozeki et al. specify the operational definition of disaster-prevention consciousness and propose the model of disaster-prevention consciousness based on an interview survey of experts [1]. In this study, the question items are formulated from the concepts extracted based on the results of Ozeki et al., and factor analysis is conducted not by targeting the particular region and attribute, but by using the answers from the monitors of an internet survey company. As a result, 5 factors are extracted, namely “imagination of damage situation,” “sense of crisis to current measures against disaster,” “other-directedness,” “anxiety,” and “indifference to disaster prevention.” These factors are correlated with each scaled score in the previous studies. There remain some problems; however, the first step has been taken for the development of a new scale for disaster-prevention consciousness which ordinary citizens could use regardless of the kind of disaster.

Cite this article as:
K. Shimazaki and M. Ozeki, “Development of a Scale for Disaster-Prevention Consciousness – Structure of Disaster-Prevention Consciousness of Those Who Lack Expertise in Disaster Prevention,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.17 No.6, pp. 1023-1036, 2022.
Data files:
  1. [1] M. Ozeki, K. Shimazaki, and T. Yi, “Exploring Elements of Disaster-Prevention Consciousness: Based on Interviews with Anti-Disaster Professionals,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.12, No.3, pp. 631-638, 2017.
  2. [2] K. Yamori, “Chapter 10: Regional Community and Disaster Prevention,” M. Karasawa and Y. Muramoto (Eds.), “Perspectives on Contemporary Social Psychology, Vol.3: Social and Individual Dynamics,” pp. 187-207, Seishin Shobo, Ltd., 2011 (in Japanese).
  3. [3] Working Group for the Study of Tsunami Evacuation Measures, Disaster Prevention Measures Promotion Study Council, Cabinet Office, Government of Japan, “Raise Awareness of Disaster Prevention,” 2012, (in Japanese) [accessed October 25, 2017]
  4. [4] Central Disaster Management Council, “Disaster Prevention Basic Plan,” 2014, (in Japanese) [accessed October 25, 2017]
  5. [5] Disaster Prevention, Cabinet Office, Government of Japan, “Questionnaire Survey on Disaster Prevention,” 2009, (in Japanese) [accessed October 25, 2017]
  6. [6] Zenrin Co., Ltd., “Disaster Prevention Week Survey ‘Disaster Prevention Awareness Survey 2014’,” 2014, (in Japanese) [accessed October 25, 2017]
  7. [7] Macromill, Inc., “Second Fixed Point Survey on Disaster Awareness and Preparedness,” 2017, (in Japanese) [accessed October 25, 2017]
  8. [8] SBI Resta SSI Co., Ltd., “Results of a Questionnaire Survey on Earthquake Disaster Prevention,” 2017, (in Japanese) [accessed October 25, 2017]
  9. [9] A. Takahashi and S. Minami, “Disaster Prevention Awareness of Okushiri Town Residents: A Questionnaire Survey of Aonae Residents,” Papers of the Annual Conf. of the Institute of Social Safety Science, No.6, pp. 115-120, 1996 (in Japanese).
  10. [10] H. Kamiya, K. Nakabayashi, and K. Takano, “Changes in Earthquake Disaster Preparedness and Awareness Among Residents of the Tokyo Metropolitan Area Before and After the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake,” Papers of the Annual Conf. of the Institute of Social Safety Science, No.6, pp. 129-136, 1996 (in Japanese).
  11. [11] Y. Namba and T. Asada, “Evaluation on Consciousness of Disaster Prevention in Kamiyacho Underground Street,” Research Reports of the School of Engineering, Kinki University, No.37, pp. 103-109, 2003 (in Japanese).
  12. [12] M. Konomatsu and A. Nakakita, “The Actual State of Disaster Prevention Education in Schoolchildren, Junior High School Students, High School Students and University Students of Northern Wakayama Prefecture,” Faculty of Education Wakayama University Bulletin of Center for Educational Research and Training, No.20, pp. 133-142, 2010 (in Japanese).
  13. [13] T. Kuromitsu and H. Tokushige, “The Awareness of Junior High School Students to Disaster and Disaster Prevention,” Bulletin of the Faculty of Education, Kagoshima University, Cultural and Social Science, Vol.66, pp. 93-101, 2015 (in Japanese).
  14. [14] Y. Arai, T. Motoyoshi, Y. Matsui, M. Saido, Y. Shimizu, I. Takenaka, M. Tanaka, K. Fukuoka, H. Hori, and K. Mizuta, “Attempt to Create a Disaster Prevention Awareness Scale,” Proc. of the 46th Annual Meeting of the Japanese Society of Social Psychology, pp. 702-703, 2005 (in Japanese).
  15. [15] R. Ishihara and N. Matsumura, “The Study on the Structure of Resident Consciousness According to Disaster Reduction in Harmony with Our Daily Life in the Coastal Regions – Tokushima Prefecture Anan City as a Case –,” J. of the City Planning Institute of Japan, Vol.47, No.3, pp. 1069-1074, 2012 (in Japanese).
  16. [16] Y. Hada, A. Sakai, H. Ichinose, and K. Ishida, “Assessment of a Practical Disaster Exercise for Students in Elementary and Junior High Schools: Results on Application of the Earthquake Early Warning,” J. of Social Safety Science, Vol.26, pp. 45-52, 2015 (in Japanese).
  17. [17] T. Motoyoshi, “Development of a New Scale for Disaster Self-Efficacy,” The 81th Annual Convention of the Japanese Psychology Association, p. 91, 2017 (in Japanese).
  18. [18] R. W. Rogers, “Cognitive and Psychological Processes in Fear Appeals and Attitude Change: A Revised Theory of Protection Motivation,” J. T. Cacioppo and R. E. Petty (Eds.), “Social Psychophysiology: A Sourcebook,” pp. 153-177, Guilford Press, 1983.
  19. [19] D. Paton, “Disaster Preparedness: A Social-Cognitive Perspective,” Disaster Prevention and Management, Vol.12, No.3, pp. 210-216, 2003.
  20. [20] M. K. Lindell and R. W. Perry, “The Protective Action Decision Model: Theoretical Modifications and Additional Evidence,” Risk Analysis, Vol.32, No.4, pp. 616-632, 2012.
  21. [21] S. Fujimoto, F. Kawami, T. Kamei, K. Tokunaga, Y. Mitani, and S. Tatsuki, “Theoretical Model Construction and Empirical Verification of Protective Action Decision Making During Disaster: Structural Equation Modeling of the Social Survey on Landslide Disasters in Oita Prefecture,” J. of Social Safety Science, Vol.35, pp. 305-315, 2019 (in Japanese).
  22. [22] S. Katsura, J. Hagihara, and Y. Yamada, “Daily Information-Gathering Behavior of Natural Disaster Victims: Focusing on Residents Who Experienced the Great East Japan Earthquake and the Kanto-Tohoku Heavy Rainfall Disaster,” Japanese J. of Public Health, Vol.68, No.4, pp. 221-229, 2021 (in Japanese).
  23. [23] Y. Kawata, “Prediction of Loss of Human Lives Due to Catastrophic Earthquake Disaster,” J. of Japan Society for Natural Disaster Science, Vol.16, No.1, pp. 3-13, 1997 (in Japanese).
  24. [24] Cabinet Office, Government of Japan, “Damage from the 2016 Kumamoto Earthquake with the Epicenter in Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan,” 2019, (in Japanese) [accessed October 30, 2021]
  25. [25] P. Slovic, “Perception of Risk,” Science, Vol.236, No.4799, pp. 280-285, 1987.

*This site is desgined based on HTML5 and CSS3 for modern browsers, e.g. Chrome, Firefox, Safari, Edge, Opera.

Last updated on Jun. 03, 2024