Influences on Liquefaction-Induced Damage of Pore Water Seepage into an Unsaturated Surface Layer
Yohsuke Kawamata*, and Hiroshi Nakazawa**
*Hyogo Earthquake Engineering Research Center, Earthquake Disaster Mitigation Research Division,
National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Resilience (NIED)
1501-21 Nishikameya, Mitsuda, Shijimicho, Miki, Hyogo 673-0515, Japan
**Earthquake Disaster Mitigation Research Division, National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Resilience (NIED), Ibaraki, Japan
Various studies have examined soil liquefaction and the resultant structure damage. The 1995 Southern Hyogo Prefecture Earthquake, a near-field earthquake, caused significant damage when the ground was liquified due to the rapidly increased pore water pressure in several cycles of major motions. Therefore, the effect of pore water movement during earthquakes has been assumed to be limited, and liquefaction has mainly been evaluated in undrained conditions. Additionally, the ground and building settlement or inclination caused by liquefaction are deemed to result from pore water drainage after earthquakes. Meanwhile, in the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake, off the Pacific Coast, a subduction-zone earthquake, long-duration motions were observed for over 300 s with frequent aftershocks. Long-duration motions with frequent aftershocks are also anticipated in a future Nankai Trough Earthquake. The effect of pore water movement not only after but during an earthquake should be considered in cases where pore water pressure gradually increases in long-duration motion. The movement of pore water during and after an earthquake typically results in simultaneous dissipation and buildup of water pressure, as well as volumetric changes associated with settlement and lateral spreading. Such effects must reasonably be considered in liquefaction evaluation and building damage prediction. This research focuses on pore water seepage into the unsaturated surface layer caused by the movement of pore water. Seepage experiments were performed based on parameters such as height of test ground, ground surface permeability, and liquefaction duration. In the tests, water pressure when the saturated ground below the groundwater level is fully liquified was applied to the bottom of the specimen representing an unsaturated surface layer. Seepage behaviors into the unsaturated surface layer were then evaluated based on the experiment data. The results show that the water level rises due to pore water seepage from the liquefied ground into the unsaturated surface layer right above the liquefied ground. For this reason, a ground shallower than the original groundwater level can be liquified.
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