JDR Vol.12 No.3 pp. 617-630
doi: 10.20965/jdr.2017.p0617


Assessment of Sedimentation in Wlingi and Lodoyo Reservoirs: A Secondary Disaster Following the 2014 Eruption of Mt. Kelud, Indonesia

Fahmi Hidayat*1,*2,†, Pitojo T. Juwono*3, Agus Suharyanto*2, Alwafi Pujiraharjo*2, Djoko Legono*4, Dian Sisinggih*3, David Neil*5, Masaharu Fujita*6, and Tetsuya Sumi*7

*1Research and Development Bureau, Jasa Tirta I Public Corporation
Jl. Surabaya 2A, Malang, Indonesia

Corresponding author

*2Civil Engineering Department, Brawijaya University, Malang, Indonesia

*3Water Resources Engineering Department, Brawijaya University, Malang, Indonesia

*4Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

*5Centre for Advanced Research on Global Change, Hanoi University of Natural Resources and Environment (HUNRE), Hanoi, Viet Nam

*6Sedimentation Disasters Laboratory, Research Center for Fluvial and Coastal Disasters, Disaster Prevention Research Institute, Kyoto University,
Kyoto, Japan

*7Water Resources Research Center, Socio and Eco Environment Risk Management, Disaster Prevention Research Institute, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan

December 1, 2016
March 22, 2017
Online released:
May 29, 2017
June 1, 2017
reservoir sedimentation, volcanic eruption, secondary disaster, Mt. Kelud
Wlingi and Lodoyo reservoirs in the Brantas River basin, Indonesia, provide numerous benefits including reliable irrigation water supply, flood control, power generation, fisheries and recreation. The function of both reservoirs particularly in relation to flood control has declined due to severe sedimentation that has reduced their storage capacities. The sedimentation in Wlingi and Lodoyo reservoirs is mainly caused by sediment inflow from the areas most affected by ejecta from eruptions of Mt. Kelud, one of the most active volcanoes in Indonesia. The main objective of this research is to assess the sedimentation problem in Wlingi and Lodoyo reservoirs, particularly as they are affected by eruptions of Mt Kelud. We performed reservoir bathymetric surveys and field surveys after the most recent eruption of Mt. Kelud in February 2014 and compared the results with surveys undertaken before the eruption. The assessment revealed that both reservoirs were severely affected by the 2014 eruption. The effective storage capacity of Wlingi reservoir in March 2013 was 2.01 Mm3 and the survey in May 2015 indicated that the effective storage of Wlingi reservoir had decreased to 1.01 Mm3. Similarly, the effective storage capacity of Lodoyo reservoir in March 2013 was 2.72 Mm3, reduced to 1.33 Mm3 in May 2015. These findings underpin the analysis of the impacts of the secondary disaster due to reservoir sedimentation following the volcanic eruption and the implications for mitigating and managing the risks for sustainable use of reservoirs to control floods, supply water, generate electricity, etc. To cope with the extreme sedimentation problem in Wlingi and Lodoyo reservoirs, diverse sediment management strategies have been applied in these reservoirs and their catchments. However sediment disaster management strategies for both reservoirs, an integral part of the Mt. Kelud Volcanic Disaster Mitigation Plan, require continuous maintenance and recurrent operations, and ongoing evaluation and improvement.
Cite this article as:
F. Hidayat, P. Juwono, A. Suharyanto, A. Pujiraharjo, D. Legono, D. Sisinggih, D. Neil, M. Fujita, and T. Sumi, “Assessment of Sedimentation in Wlingi and Lodoyo Reservoirs: A Secondary Disaster Following the 2014 Eruption of Mt. Kelud, Indonesia,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.12 No.3, pp. 617-630, 2017.
Data files:
  1. [1] S. Egashira, “Review of research related to sediment disaster management,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.2, No.1, pp. 11-18, 2007.
  2. [2] L. Lirer, A. Vinci, I. Alberico, T. Gifuni, F. Bellucci, P. Petrosino, and R. Tinterri, “Occurrence of inter-eruption debris flow and hyperconcentrated flood-flow deposits on Vesuvio volcano, Italy,” Sedimentary Geology, Vol.139, pp. 151-167, 2001.
  3. [3] J. J. Major, T. C. Pierson, R. L. Dinehart, and J. E. Costa, “Sediment yield following severe volcanic disturbance – A two-decade perspective from Mount St. Helens,” Geology, Vol.28, No.9, pp. 819-822, 2000.
  4. [4] R. P. Hoblitt, J. S. Walder, C. L. Driedger, K. M. Scott, P. T. Pringle, and J. W. Valance, “Volcano hazards from Mount Rainier, Washington,” U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, 1995.
  5. [5] T. C. Pierson, J. J. Major, A. Amigo, and M. Moreno, “Acute sedimentation response to rainfall following the explosive phase of the 2008–2009 eruption of Chaitén volcano, Chile,” Bull Volcanol, Vol.75, p.723, 2013.
  6. [6] J. C. Thouret, K. E. Abdurachman, and J. L. Bourdier, “Origin, characteristics, and behaviour of lahars following the 1990 eruption of Mt. Kelud, Eastern Java (Indonesia),” Bulletin of Volcanology, Vol.59, pp. 460-480, 1998.
  7. [7] T. F. Fathani and D. Legono, “The application of monitoring and early warning system of rainfall-triggered debris flow at Merapi Volcano, Central Java, Indonesia,” F. Wang et al. (eds.), Progress of Geo-Disaster Mitigation Technology in Asia, Environmental Science and Engineering, 2013.
  8. [8] Y. Gonda, D. Legono, B. Sukatja, and U. B. Santosa, “Debris flows and flash floods in the Putih River after the 2010 eruption of Mt. Merapi, Indonesia,” Int. J. of Erosion Control Engineering, Vol.7, No.2, pp. 63-68, 2014.
  9. [9] F. Lavigne, J. C. Thouret, B. Voight, H. Suwa, and A. Sumaryono, “Lahars at Merapi volcano, Central Java: an overview,” J. of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, Vol.100, pp. 423-456, 2000.
  10. [10] F. Lavigne, “Rate of sediment yield following small-scale volcanic eruptions: A quantitative assessment at the Merapi and Semeru Stratovolcanoes, Java, Indonesia,” Earth Surf. Process. Landforms, Vol.29, pp. 1045-1058, 2004.
  11. [11] C. G. Newhall, S. Bronto, B. Allowayc, N. G. Banks, I. Bahar, M. A. del Marmol, R. D. Hadisantono, R. T. Holcomb, J. McGeehin, J. N. Miksi, M. Rubin, S. D. Sayudi, R. Sukhyar, S. Andreastuti, R. I. Tilling, R. Torley, D. Trimble, and A. D. Wirakusumah, “10,000 Years of explosive eruptions of Merapi Volcano, Central Java: archaeological and modern implications,” J. of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, Vol.100, pp. 9-50, 2009.
  12. [12] J. C. Thouret, F. Lavigne, K. Kelfoun, and S. Bronto, “Toward a revised hazard assessment at Merapi volcano, Central Java,” J. of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, Vol.100, pp. 479-502, 2000.
  13. [13] F. Yulianto, P. Sofan, M. R. Khomarudin, and M. Haidar, “Extracting the damaging effects of the 2010 eruption of Merapi volcano in Central Java, Indonesia,” Nat Hazards, Vol.66, pp. 229-247, 2013.
  14. [14] F. Lavigne and H. Suwa, “Contrasts between debris flows, hyperconcentrated flows and stream flows at a channel of Mount Semeru, East Java, Indonesia,” Geomorphology, Vol.61, pp. 41-58, 2004.
  15. [15] H. Ikeya and Y. Ishikawa, “Characteristics of pyroclastic flows and debris flows accompanying the Mt Unzen-Fugendake eruption,” In Sediment Problems: Strategies for Monitoring, Prediction, and Control, IAHS Publication, No.217, 1993.
  16. [16] T. Mizuyama and S. Kobashi, “Sediment yield and topographic change after major volcanic activity,” Erosion and Sediment Yield: Global and Regional Perspectives, Proc. of the Exeter Symp., IAHS Publ. No.236, July 1996.
  17. [17] S. K. Hayes, D. R. Montgomery, and C. G. Newhall, “Fluvial sediment transport and deposition following the 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo,” Geomorphology, Vol.45, pp. 211-224, 2002.
  18. [18] E. M. R. Paguican, A. M. F. Lagmay, K. S. Rodolfo, R. S. Rodolfo, A. M. P. Tengonciang, M. R. Lapus, E. G. Baliatan, and E. C. Obille Jr., “Extreme rainfall-induced lahars and dike breaching, 30 November 2006, Mayon Volcano, Philippines,” Bull Volcal, Vol.71, 2009.
  19. [19] S. J. Cronin, V. E. Neall, J. A. Lecointre, and A. S. Palmer, “Changes in Whangaehu river lahar characteristics during the 1995 eruption sequence, Ruapehu volcano, New Zealand,” J. of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, Vol.76, pp. 47-61, 1997.
  20. [20] M. Jakob and O. Hungr, “Debris-flow Hazard and Related Phenomena,” Praxis Publishing Ltd. Chichester, UK, 2005.
  21. [21] K. Mahmood, “Reservoir sedimentation: impact, extent, and mitigation,” Washington DC: World Bank Technical Paper Number 71, 1997.
  22. [22] G. L. Morris, “Sediment management and sustainable use of reservoirs,” In: Wang, L. K. and Yang, C. T. (eds.), Modern Water Resources Engineering, Humana Press, New York, pp. 279-339, 2014.
  23. [23] G. L. Morris, and J. Fan, “Reservoir sedimentation handbook: design and management of dams, reservoir and watersheds for sustainable use,” McGraw Hill, New York, USA, 1997.
  24. [24] Soekistijono, F. Hidayat, and A. Harnanto, “Effect of Volcanic Eruption on Sedimentation: Case study of Mt. Kelud in Brantas River Basin, East Java – Indonesia,” Proc. of the Int. Conf. on Monitoring, Prediction and Mitigation of Water-Related Disasters (MPMD 2005), Disaster Prevention Research Institute, Kyoto University, Japan, pp. 551-556, 2005.
  25. [25] Global Volcanism Program, Report on Kelud (Indonesia), In: Wunderman, R. (ed.), Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, Vol.39, No.2, Smithsonian Institution, [accessed February 8, 2016], 2014.
  26. [26] NASA, “Indonesia’s Mount Kelud erupts,” [accessed August 27, 2016], 2014.
  27. [27] L. H. Tanaka, M. Iguchi, and S. Nakada, “Numerical simulations of volcanic ash plume dispersal from Kelud Volcano in Indonesia on February 13, 2014,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.11, No.1, pp. 31-42, 2016.
  28. [28] M. Iguchi, Surono, T. Nishimura, M. Hendrasto, U. Rosadi, T. Ohkura, H. Triastuty, A. Basuki, A.Loeqman, S. Maryanto, K. Ishihara, M. Yoshimoto, S. Nakada, and N. Hokanishi, “Methods for eruption prediction and hazard evaluation at Indonesian Volcanoes,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.7, No.1, pp. 26-36, 2012.
  29. [29] E. D. Bélizal, F. Lavigne, J. C. Gaillard, D. Grancher, I. Pratomo, and Komorowski, “The 2007 eruption of Kelut volcano (East Java, Indonesia): Phenomenology, crisis management and social response,” Geomorphology, Vol.136, pp. 165-175, 2010.
  30. [30] E. Klemeti, “Kelud, Before and After the Eruption,” [accessed August 27, 2016], 2014 .
  31. [31] Nippon Koei Co., Ltd., Completion Report Vol.1: Main Report. Water Resources Existing Facilities Rehabilitation and Capacity Improvement Project. Directorate General of Water Resources Development, Ministry of Public Works, Government of the Republic of Indonesia, 2005.
  32. [32] Nippon Koei Co., Ltd. and associates, Completion Report on Overall Consulting Services for Water Resources Existing Facilities Rehabilitation and Capacity Improvement Project, Directorate General of Water Resources Development, Ministry of Public Works, Government of Indonesia, 2012.

*This site is desgined based on HTML5 and CSS3 for modern browsers, e.g. Chrome, Firefox, Safari, Edge, Opera.

Last updated on Jul. 12, 2024