JACIII Vol.20 No.3 pp. 385-392
doi: 10.20965/jaciii.2016.p0385


Development of Manual Measurement System with Stereo Markers for Lachman Test

Zhongjie Long*,**, Shogo Kawaguchi*, and Kouki Nagamune*,***

*Department of Human and Artificial Intelligent Systems, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Fukui
3-9-1 Bunkyo, Fukui 910-8507, Japan

**Beijing Information Science and Technology University
Beijing 100192, China

***Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe University
7-5-1 Kusunokicho, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-0017, Japan

July 6, 2015
November 27, 2015
May 19, 2016
Lachman test, anterior cruciate ligament, manual measurement system
The objective of this paper is to develop a manual measurement system (MMS) for the Lachman test using stereo markers. A novel calculation method that is fit for stereo markers is proposed to analyze knee joint motion in real-time based on the extraction of markers attached on the femur and tibia. In our experiments, knee extension movement and tibial translation are performed with imitation bones to evaluate the accuracy of the system. Further, a simulation of the Lachman test is performed in vivo measurement. The mean error of the knee extension movement in ten cases (range 0° to 90°) was 0.41° with a standard deviation of 0.44°. The mean error of the tibial translation was approximately 0.3 ± 0.9 mm. Experimental results confirmed the acceptable performance of the proposed measurement system, which can be considered for application in clinical manual tests.
Cite this article as:
Z. Long, S. Kawaguchi, and K. Nagamune, “Development of Manual Measurement System with Stereo Markers for Lachman Test,” J. Adv. Comput. Intell. Intell. Inform., Vol.20 No.3, pp. 385-392, 2016.
Data files:
  1. [1] S. Wiertsema, H. Van Hooff, L. Migchelsen, and M. Steultjens, “Reliability of the KT1000 arthrometer and the Lachman test in patients with an ACL rupture,” The Knee, Vol.15, No.2, pp. 107-110, 2008.
  2. [2] G. Laxdal, J. Kartus, B. I. Eriksson, E. Faxén, N. Sernert, and J. Karlsson, “Biodegradable and Metallic Interference Screws in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Surgery Using Hamstring Tendon Grafts Prospective Randomized Study of Radiographic Results and Clinical Outcome,” The A. J. of Sports Medicine, Vol.34, No.10, pp. 1574-1580, 2006.
  3. [3] T. Muneta, H. Koga, T. Mochizuki, Y.-J. Ju, K. Hara, A. Nimura, K. Yagishita, and I. Sekiya, “A prospective randomized study of 4-strand semitendinosus tendon anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction comparing single-bundle and double-bundle techniques,” Arthroscopy: The J. of Arthroscopic & Related Surgery, Vol.23, No.6, pp. 618-628, 2007.
  4. [4] M. Lidén, L. Ejerhed, N. Sernert, G. Laxdal, and J. Kartus, “Patellar Tendon or Semitendinosus Tendon Autografts for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction A Prospective, Randomized StudyWith a 7-Year Follow-up,” The A. J. of Sports Medicine, Vol.35, No.5, pp. 740-748, 2007.
  5. [5] D. Roberts, E. Ageberg, G. Andersson, and T. Fridén, “Clinical measurements of proprioception, muscle strength and laxity in relation to function in the ACL-injured knee,” Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy, Vol.15, No.1, pp. 9-16, 2007.
  6. [6] J. Isberg, E. Faxén, S. Brandsson, B. I. Eriksson, J. Kärrholm, and J. Karlsson, “Early active extension after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction does not result in increased laxity of the knee,” Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy, Vol.14, No.11, pp. 1108-1115, 2006.
  7. [7] D. O. Draper and S. S. Schulthies, “Examiner proficiency in performing the anterior drawer and Lachman tests,” J. of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, Vol.22, No.6, pp. 263-266, 1995.
  8. [8] S.-J. Kim and H.-K. Kim, “Reliability of the anterior drawer test, the pivot shift test, and the Lachman test.,” Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, Vol.317, pp. 237-242, 1995.
  9. [9] M. A. Oberlander, R. M. Shalvoy, and J. C. Hughston, “The accuracy of the clinical knee examination documented by arthroscopy A prospective study,” The A. J. of Sports Medicine, Vol.21, No.6, pp. 773-778, 1993.
  10. [10] M. Holt and J. Fairclough, “The KT-1000 arthrometer: is it accurate?,” The Knee, Vol.2, No.1, pp. 59-59, 1995.
  11. [11] A. Ganko, L. Engebretsen, and H. Ozer, “The rolimeter: a new arthrometer compared with the KT-1000,” Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy, Vol.8, No.1, pp. 36-39, 2000.
  12. [12] C. Jardin, C. Chantelot, H. Migaud, F. Gougeon, M. Debroucker, and A. Duquennoy, “Reliability of the KT-1000 arthrometer in measuring anterior laxity of the knee: comparative analysis with Telos of 48 reconstructions of the anterior cruciate ligament and intra-and interobserver reproducibility,” Revue de chirurgie orthopedique et reparatrice de L'appareil moteur, Vol.85, No.7, pp. 698-707, 1999.
  13. [13] D. M. Daniel, L. L. Malcom, G. Losse, M. L. Stone, R. Sachs, and R. Burks, “Instrumented measurement of anterior laxity of the knee,” The J. of Bone & Joint Surgery, Vol.67, No.5, pp. 720-726, 1985.
  14. [14] B. F. Giannotti, G. C. Fanelli, T. A. Barrett, and C. Edson, “The predictive value of intraoperative KT-1000 arthrometer measurements in single incision anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction,” Arthroscopy: The J. of Arthroscopic & Related Surgery, Vol.12, No.6, pp. 660-666, 1996.
  15. [15] G. C. Sharp, S. W. Lee, and D. K. Wehe, “ICP registration using invariant features,” IEEE Trans. on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, Vol.24, No.1, pp. 90-102, 2002.
  16. [16] Z. Zhang, “Iterative point matching for registration of free-form curves and surfaces,” Int. J. of Computer Vision, Vol.13, No.2, pp. 119-152, 1994.
  17. [17] Z. Feng, N. Kouki, and K. Shogo, “A Measurement System of Manual Test Movement Using Marker from Optical Device,” Proc. of the SCIS & ISIS Conf., pp. 1572-1575, 2014.
  18. [18] G. Cole, B. Nigg, J. Ronsky, and M. Yeadon, “Application of the joint coordinate system to three-dimensional joint attitude and movement representation: a standardization proposal,” J. of Biomechanical Engineering, Vol.115, No.4A, pp. 344-349, 1993.
  19. [19] E. S. Grood and W. J. Suntay, “A joint coordinate system for the clinical description of three-dimensional motions: application to the knee,” J. of Biomechanical Engineering, Vol.105, No.2, pp. 136-144, 1983.
  20. [20] F. Qi, J. Han, P. Wang, G. Shi, and F. Li, “Structure guided fusion for depth map inpainting,” Pattern Recognition Letters, Vol.34, No.1, pp. 70-76, 2013.
  21. [21] B. Zhao, P. An, C. Liu, J. Yan, C. Li, and Z. Zhang, “Inpainting algorithm for Kinect depth map based on foreground segmentation,” J. of Electronics (China), Vol.31, No.1, pp. 41-49, 2014.
  22. [22] J. Han, L. Shao, D. Xu, and J. Shotton, “Enhanced computer vision with microsoft kinect sensor: A review,” IEEE Trans. on Cybernetics, Vol.43, No.5, pp. 1318-1334, 2013.
  23. [23] M. Camplani, T. Mantecon, and L. Salgado, “Depth-color fusion strategy for 3-d scene modeling with kinect,” IEEE Trans. on Cybernetics, Vol.43, No.6, pp. 1560-1571, 2013.
  24. [24] K. R. Vijayanagar, M. Loghman, and J. Kim, “Real-time refinement of kinect depth maps using multi-resolution anisotropic diffusion,” Mobile Networks and Applications, Vol.19, No.3, pp. 414-425, 2014.
  25. [25] W. Chen, H. Yue, J. Wang, and X. Wu, “An improved edge detection algorithm for depth map inpainting,” Optics and Lasers in Engineering, Vol.55, pp. 69-77, 2014.
  26. [26] D. Miao, J. Fu, Y. Lu, S. Li, and C. W. Chen, “Texture-assisted kinect depth inpainting,” Proc. of IEEE Inter. Symp. on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS), pp. 604-607, 2012.
  27. [27] E. Van Ijsseldijk, E. Valstar, B. Stoel, R. Nelissen, J. Reiber, and B. Kaptein, “The robustness and accuracy of in vivo linear wear measurements for knee prostheses based on model-based RSA,” J. of Biomechanics, Vol.44, No.15, pp. 2724-2727, 2011.
  28. [28] >

*This site is desgined based on HTML5 and CSS3 for modern browsers, e.g. Chrome, Firefox, Safari, Edge, Opera.

Last updated on Jul. 12, 2024