Planning to Flip Heavy Objects Considering Soft-Finger Contacts
Mohamed Raessa, Weiwei Wan, Keisuke Koyama, and Kensuke Harada
1-3 Machikaneyama-cho, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043, Japan
In this study, we implemented a constrained motion planner that enables robot manipulators to flip large and heavy objects without slippage while continuously holding them. Based on the soft-finger maximum friction torque, we developed a constraint relaxation method to estimate the critical rotation angle that a robot end effector can rotate while avoiding in-hand slippage. The critical rotation angle was used in a motion planner to sample safe configurations and generate slippage-free motion. The proposed planner was implemented using a 6-degree-of-freedom robot arm and a 2-finger robotic gripper with rubber pads attached to the fingertips. Experiments were performed with several objects to examine and demonstrate the performance of the planner. The results indicated satisfying planning time and the elimination of object slippage.
-  P. Tournassoud, T. Lozano-Pérez, and E. Mazer, “Regrasping,” Proc. of IEEE Int. Conf. on Robotics and Automation, Vol.4, pp. 1924-1928, 1987.
-  W. Wan and K. Harada, “Reorientating objects with a gripping hand and a table surface,” Proc. of IEEE-RAS Int. Conf. on Humanoid Robots, pp. 101-106, 2015.
-  M. Dogar, A. Spielberg, S. Baker, and D. Rus, “Multi-robot grasp planning for sequential assembly operations,” Proc. of IEEE Int. Conf. on Robotics and Automation, pp. 193-200, 2015.
-  W. Wan and K. Harada, “Developing and comparing single-arm and dual-arm regrasp,” IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters, Vol.1, No.1, pp. 243-250, 2016.
-  T. Takubo, H. Arai, Y. Hayashibara, and K. Tanie, “Human-robot cooperative manipulation using a virtual nonholonomic constraint,” The Int. J. of Robotics Research, Vol.21, Issues 5-6, pp. 541-553, 2002.
-  M. Lawitzky, A. Mörtl, and S. Hirche, “Load sharing in human-robot cooperative manipulation,” Proc. of Int. Symp. in Robot and Human Interactive Communication, pp. 185-191, 2010.
-  T. Tsumugiwa, Y. Takeuchi, and R. Yokogawa, “Maneuverability of impedance-controlled motion in a human-robot cooperative task system,” J. Robot. Mechatron., Vol.29, No.4, pp. 746-756, 2017.
-  O. Khatib, “Real-time obstacle avoidance for manipulators and mobile robots,” I. J. Cox and G. T. Wilfong (Eds.), “Autonomous robot vehicles,” Springer, pp. 396-404, 1986.
-  J. Barraquand and J.-C. Latombe, “Robot motion planning: A distributed representation approach,” The Int. J. of Robotics Research, Vol.10, Issue 6, pp. 628-649, 1991.
-  S. Aine, S. Swaminathan, V. Narayanan, V. Hwang, and M. Likhachev, “Multi-Heuristic A*,” The Int. J. of Robotics Research, Vol.35, Issues 1-3, pp. 224-243, 2016.
-  S. M. LaValle, ”Planning algorithms,” Cambridge University Press, 2006.
-  A. M. Ladd and L. E. Kavraki, “Measure theoretic analysis of probabilistic path planning,” IEEE Trans. on Robotics and Automation, Vol.20, No.2, pp. 229-242, 2004.
-  L. E. Kavraki, M. N. Kolountzakis, and J.-C. Latombe, “Analysis of probabilistic roadmaps for path planning,” IEEE Trans. on Robotics and Automation, Vol.14, No.1, pp. 166-171, 1998.
-  H. Liu and W. Weiwei, “Adaptive replanning in hard changing environments,” Proc. of IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. on Intelligent Robots and Systems, pp. 5912-5918, 2010.
-  J. J. Kuffner and S. M. LaValle, “RRT-connect: An efficient approach to single-query path planning,” Proc. of IEEE Int. Conf. on Robotics and Automation, Vol.2, pp. 995-1001, 2000.
-  F. Islam, J. Nasir, U. Malik, Y. Ayaz, and O. Hasan, “RRT*-Smart: Rapid convergence implementation of RRT* towards optimal solution,” Proc. of IEEE Int. Conf. on Mechatronics and Automation, pp. 1651-1656, 2012.
-  C. Urmson and R. Simmons, “Approaches for heuristically biasing RRT growth,” Proc. of IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. on Intelligent Robots and Systems, Vol.2, pp. 1178-1183, 2003.
-  J. Kuffner, K. Nishiwaki, S. Kagami, M. Inaba, and H. Inoue, “Motion planning for humanoid robots,” Proc. of Int. Symp. on Robotics Research, pp. 365-374, 2005.
-  B. Siciliano, “Kinematic control of redundant robot manipulators: A tutorial,” J. of Intelligent and Robotic Systems, Vol.3, No.3, pp. 201-212, 1990.
-  S. Chiaverini, G. Oriolo, and I. D. Walker, “Kinematically redundant manipulators,” Springer Handbook of Robotics, pp. 245-268, 2008.
-  M. T. Mason, “Compliance and force control for computer controlled manipulators,” IEEE Trans. on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Vol.11, No.6, pp. 418-432, 1981.
-  M. Stilman, “Task constrained motion planning in robot joint space,” Proc. of IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. on Intelligent Robots and Systems, pp. 3074-3081, 2007.
-  R. Moriyama, W. Wan, and K. Harada, “Dual-arm Assembly Planning Considering Gravitational Constraints,” Proc. of IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. on Intelligent Robots and Systems, pp. 5566-5572, 2019.
-  D. Sanchez, W. Wan, F. Kanehiro, and K. Harada, “Re-posing Objects Considering Bipedal Stability Constraints: An Approach for Stability Preservation During Humanoid Manipulation,” Int. J. of Humanoid Robotics, Vol.17, No.2, 2050005, 2020.
-  M. Bonilla, E. Farnioli, L. Pallottino, and A. Bicchi, “Sample-based motion planning for soft robot manipulators under task constraints,” Proc. of IEEE Int. Conf. on Robotics and Automation, pp. 1-6, 2015.
-  M. Bonilla, L. Pallottino, and A. Bicchi, “Noninteracting constrained motion planning and control for robot manipulators,” Proc. of IEEE Int. Conf. on Robotics and Automation, pp. 4038-4043, 2017.
-  D. Berenson, S. Srinivasa, and J. Kuffner, “Task space regions: A framework for pose-constrained manipulation planning,” The Int. J. of Robotics Research, Vol.30, Issue 12, pp. 1435-1460, 2011.
-  J. H. Yakey, S. M. LaValle, and L. E. Kavraki, “Randomized path planning for linkages with closed kinematic chains,” IEEE Trans. on Robotics and Automation, Vol.17, No.6, pp. 951-958, 2001.
-  G. Oriolo and M. Vendittelli, “A control-based approach to task-constrained motion planning,” Proc. of IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. on Intelligent Robots and Systems, pp. 297-302, 2009.
-  J. K. Salisbury and B. Roth, “Kinematic and force analysis of articulated mechanical hands,” J. of Mechanisms, Transmissions, and Automation in Design, Vol.105, Issue 1, pp. 35-41, 1983.
-  M. T. Mason and J. K. Salisbury, “Robot hands and the mechanics of manipulation,” The MIT Press, 1985.
-  M. Ciocarlie, C. Lackner, and P. Allen, “Soft finger model with adaptive contact geometry for grasping and manipulation tasks,” Proc. of Second Joint EuroHaptics Conf. and Symp. on Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems, pp. 219-224, 2007.
-  R. Moriyama, W. Wan, and K. Harada, “Dual-arm assembly planning considering gravitational constraints,” Proc. of 2019 IEEE/RSJ Int. Conf. on Intelligent Robots and Systems, pp. 5566-5572, 2019.