IJAT Vol.7 No.1 pp. 52-70
doi: 10.20965/ijat.2013.p0052


Modeling, Simulation, and Optimization of Machining Polymer Infiltrated Calcium Polyphosphate

Theodoros Vasilopoulos*, Kaan Erkorkmaz*, Fathy Ismail*,
and Robert M. Pilliar**

*Department of Mechanical & Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave West, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1, Canada

**Faculty of Dentistry, University of Toronto, 124 Edward Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 1G6, Canada

August 7, 2012
December 14, 2012
January 5, 2013
porous implants, calcium polyphosphate, milling, design of experiment, cutting process simulation
Calcium PolyPhosphate (CPP) is a biodegradable inorganic polymer that when formed as a porous structure with interconnected pores of a desired size range holds great potential for certain tissue engineering applications. While possessing desirable characteristics of biocompatibility with acceptable compressive strength, the brittle nature of porous CPPmakes it difficult to machine to desired form from blocks made by sintering CPP powders. To accurately generate anatomically conforming features, conservative material removal rates have been used. In this paper, we investigate the impact of polymer impregnation on the machinability of CPP. The choice of polymer and machining conditions is optimized using Taguchi approach to statistical design of experiments. A cutting force model has been developed for simulation purposes and is validated experimentally. The force model is used to determine peak loading conditions, which are considered in Finite Element studies to ensure that the implant, during machining, does not chip or break. The proposed cutting conditions are validated in rough machining of porous CPP implants (∼ 30 volume % porosity) where 8 times reduction in cycle time is achieved over earlier studies, while still producing desired shapes and surface features of excellent quality.
Cite this article as:
T. Vasilopoulos, K. Erkorkmaz, F. Ismail, and R. Pilliar, “Modeling, Simulation, and Optimization of Machining Polymer Infiltrated Calcium Polyphosphate,” Int. J. Automation Technol., Vol.7 No.1, pp. 52-70, 2013.
Data files:
  1. [1] R. C. Ropp, “Inorganic Polymeric Glasses,” Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1992.
  2. [2] M. Filiaggi, R. M. Pilliar, and J. Hong, “On the Sintering Characteristics of Calcium Polyphosphates,” Key Engineering Materials, Vols.192-195, pp. 171-174, 2001.
  3. [3] R. M. Pilliar, M. J. Filiaggi, J. D. Wells, M. D. Grynpas, and R. A. Kandel, “Porous Calcium Polyphosphate Scaffolds for Bone Substitute Applications – In Vitro Characterization,” Biomaterials, 22, pp. 963-972, 2001.
  4. [4] M. D. Grynpas, R. M. Pilliar, M. J. Filiaggi, and R. A. Kandel, “Porous Calcium Polyphosphate Scaffolds for Bone Substitute Applications – In Vivo Characterization,” Biomaterials, 23, pp. 2063-2070, 2002.
  5. [5] D. Shi, “Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering,” Springer, Berlin-Heidelberg, 2004.
  6. [6] R. A. Kandel, M. D. Grynpas, R. M. Pilliar, J. Lee, S. D.Waldman, P. Zalzal, and M. Hurtig, “Repair of Osteochondral Defects with Biphasic Cartilage-Calcium Polyphosphate Constructs In a Sheep Model,” Biomaterials, 27, pp. 4120-4131, 2006.
  7. [7] L. Gan, C. Tse, R. M. Pilliar, and R. A. Kandel, “Low-Power Laser Stimulation of Tissue Engineered Cartilage Tissue Formed on a Porous Calcium Polyphosphate Scaffold,” Lasers Surg Med., Vol.39, pp. 286-293, 2007.
  8. [8] S. D. Waldman, D. C. Couto, M. D. Grynpas, R. M. Pilliar, and R. A. Kandel, “Multi-Axial Mechanical Stimulation of Tissue Engineered Cartilage,” Eur Cell Mater, Vol.13, pp. 66-73, 2007.
  9. [9] K. Allan, R. M. Pilliar, J. Wang, M. D. Grynpas, and R. A. Kandel, “Formation of Biphasic Constructs Containing Cartilage with a Calcified Zone Interface,” Tissue Engineering, Vol.13, pp. 167-77, 2007.
  10. [10] C. Wei, “Rapid Fabrication Techniques for Anatomically-Shaped Calcium Polyphosphate Substrates for Implants to Repair Osteochondral Focal Defects,” M.A.Sc. Thesis, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Canada, 2007.
  11. [11] Y. Shanjani, J. N. A. De Croos, R. M. Pilliar, R. A. Kandel, and E. Toyserkani, “Solid Freeform Fabrication and Characterization of Porous Calcium Polyphosphate Structures for Tissue Engineering Purposes,” J. of Biomedical Materials, Vol.93B/2, pp. 510-519, 2010.
  12. [12] A. Rouzrokh, C. Y. H. Wei, K. Erkorkmaz, and R. M. Pilliar, “Machining Porous Calcium Polyphosphate Implants for Tissue Engineering Applications,” Int. J. of Automation Technology – Special Issue on Modeling and Simulation of Cutting Processes, Vol.4, No.3, pp. 291-301, 2010.
  13. [13] T. Kasuga, M. Terada, and M. Nogami, “Machinable Calcium Pyrophosphate Glass-Ceramics,” J. of Materials Research, Vol.16, Issue 3, pp. 876-880, 2001.
  14. [14] T. Kasuga, M. Nogami, and M. Niinomi, “Novel Machinable Calcium Phosphate Glass-Ceramics for Biomedical Use,” Materials Science Forum, Vols.426-432, pp. 3183-3188, 2003.
  15. [15] K. L. Chelulea, T. J. Cooleb, and D. G. Cheshire, “An Investigation into the Machinability of Hydroxyapatite for Bone Restoration Implants,” J. of Materials Processing Technology, Vol.135, Issues 2-3, pp. 242-246, 2002.
  16. [16] Y. B. Guo and M. Salahshoor, “Process mechanics and surface integrity by high-speed dry milling of biodegradable magnesiumcalcium implant alloys,” Annals of CIRP, Vol.59, No.1, pp. 151-154, 2010.
  17. [17] R. M. Pilliar, R. A. Kandel, and M. D. Grynpas, “Porous Calcium Polyphosphates for Musculoskeletal Repair and Regeneration,” Invited Plenary Presentation, Bioceramics 22, Daegu, Korea, Oct 26-29, 2009.
  18. [18] A. Dudi and M. Papini, “Design of a Prototype Bioresorbable Tibial Implant in a Sheep Model,” Proc. of the 21st Canadian Congress of Applied Mechanics (CANCAM’07), Toronto, June 3-7, 2007.
  19. [19] M. Effgen, F. Pusavec, and I. S. Jawahir, “An Investigation of Sustained Machining Performance for Controlled Surface Quality Requirements in Porous Tungsten,” Proc. of IEEE Vacuum Electronics Conf., Monterey 22-24 April, pp. 293-294, 2008.
  20. [20] J. R. Kelly and J.M. Antonucci, “Processing and Properties of Interpenetrating Phase Composites,” Polymer Preprints, Vol.38, pp. 125-126, 1997.
  21. [21] D. R. Clark, “Interpenetrating Phase Composites,” J. of the American Ceramic Society, Vol.75, Issue 4, pp. 739-759, 1992.
  22. [22] L. Yang, J. Wang, J. Hong, J. P. Santerre, and R. M. Pilliar, “Synthesis and Characterization of a Novel Polymer-Ceramic System for Biodegradable Composite Applications,” J. of Biomedical Materials Research, Vol.66A, Issue 3, pp. 622-632, 2003.
  23. [23] M. S. Phadke, “Quality Engineering Using Robust Design,” Prentice-Hall, New Jersey, 1995.
  24. [24] Y. Altintas, “Manufacturing Automation: Principles of Metal Cutting and Machine Tool Control,” Cambridge University Press, UK, 2000.
  25. [25] E. Budak, Y. Altintas, and E. J. A. Armarego, “Prediction ofMilling Force Coefficients from Orthogonal Cutting Data,” ASME J. Manufacturing Science and Engineering, Vol.118, pp. 216-224, 1996.
  26. [26] T. Vasilopoulos, “High Productivity Milling of Calcium Polyphosphate,” M.A.Sc. Thesis, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Canada, 2012.

*This site is desgined based on HTML5 and CSS3 for modern browsers, e.g. Chrome, Firefox, Safari, Edge, Opera.

Last updated on Apr. 22, 2024