Tele-Inverse Manufacturing — An International E-Waste Recycling Proposal
Mitsutaka Matsumoto, Nozomu Mishima, and Shinsuke Kondoh
National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST)
Tsukuba East, 1-2-1, Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8564, Japan
With increasing numbers of used electronics products (e-waste) being sent from developed to developing countries, questions arise on how to recycle e-waste sustainably while minimizing pollution, energy, and cost and maximizing material, part, and product life. We focus on two issues concerning projected e-waste recycling — the level at which recycling should be automated and the location of recycling itself. Among possible recycling scenarios, we propose tele-inverse manufacturing enabling advances in automation and remote recycling control. We hold that tele-inverse manufacturing is more technically feasible than fully automated recycling and more economically feasible than current recycling because it enables an international division of labor. It also reduces the closed loop of material, parts, and products compared to that of manually based international recycling.
-  Basel Action Network and Silicon Valley Toxic Coalition, "Exporting Harm," 2002.
-  A. Leung, Z. Cai, and M. Wong, "Environmental contamination from electronic waste recycling at Guiyu, southeast China," Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management, Vol.8, pp. 21-33, 2006.
-  S. Murakami, A. Terazono, N. Abe, Y. Moriguchi, and H. Miyakawa, "Material flows of end-of-life home appliances in Japan," Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management, Vol.8, pp. 46-55, 2006.
-  J. Li, B. Tian, T. Liu, H. Liu, X. Wen, and S. Honda, "Status quo of e-waste management in mainland China," Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management, Vol.8, pp. 13-20, 2006.
-  M. Marks, C. Eubanks, and K. Ishii, "Life-cycle clumping of product designs for ownership and retirement," Fifth International Conference on Design Theory and Methodology, ASME Design Engineering Technical Conferences, pp. 83-90, 1993.
-  K. Ishii, B. Lee, and C. Eubanks, "Design for product retirement and modularity based on technology life-cycle," Proc 1995 ASME International Mechanical Engineering Conference and Exposition, Vol.2-2, pp. 921-33, 1995.
-  J. Scheuring, B. Bras, and K. Lee, "Effects of design for disassembly on integrated disassembly and assembly processes," Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Computer Integrated Manufacturing and Automation Technology. pp. 53-59, 1994.
-  V. Guide and R. Srivastava, "Scheduling policies for remanufacturing," International Journal of Production Economics. Vol.48, No.2, pp. 187-204, 1997.
-  M. Fleischmann, J. Bloemho-Ruwaard, R. Dekker, E. Van der Laan, J. Van Nunen, and L. Van Wassenhove, "Quantitative models for reverse logistics: a review," European Journal of Operations Research. Vol.103, pp. 1-17, 1997.
-  A. Weigl, "Requirements for robot assisted disassembly of not appropriately design electronic products: lessons from first studies," Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Electronics and the Environment, pp. 337-343, 1994.
-  A. Coutee, S. McDermott, and B. Bras, "A Haptic Assembly and Disassembly Simulation Environment and Associated Computational Load Optimization Techniques," Journal of Computing & Information Science in Engineering, Vol.1, No.2, pp. 113-122, 2001.
-  R. Knoth, B. Kopacek, and P. Kopacek, "Case Study: Multi Life Cycle Center for Electronic Products," Proceedings of the 2005 IEEE International Symposium on Electronics & the Environment, pp. 194-198, 2005.
-  B. Basdere and G. Seliger, "Disassembly factories for electrical and electronic products to recover resources in product and material cycles," Environmental Science and Technology, Vol.37, No.23, pp. 5354-5362, 2003.
-  M. McIntosh and B. Bras, "Determining the value of remanufacture in an integrated manufacturing -- remanufacturing organization," Paper No.98DETC-DFM5750, 1998 Design for Manufacture Symposium, 1998 ASME Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers in Engineering Conference, 1998.
-  A. Clegg, D. Williams, and R. Uzsoy, "Production planning for companies with remanufacturing capability," IEEE International Symposium on Electronics and the Environment. pp. 186-191, 1995.
-  R. Uzsoy, "Production planning for companies with product recovery and remanufacturing capability," IEEE International Symposium on Electronics and the Environment, pp. 285-289, 1997.
-  J. Fujimoto, Y. Umeda, S. Kondoh, Z. Li, K. Nakakura, and M. Kuwatani, "EcoDesign of Multilateral Recycling Systems in Asia," 4th International Symposium on Environmentally Conscious Design and Inverse Manufacturing, 2005.
-  R. Lund and F. Skeels, "Guidelines for an original equipment manufacturer starting a remanufacturing operation," Government Report, DOE/CS/40192, CPA-83-8. Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Center for Policy Alternatives, 1983.
-  R. Lund and W. Denny, "Opportunities and implications of extending product life," Symp on Product Durability and Life, Gaithersburg, MD, pp. 1-11, 1977.  H. Haynsworth and R. Lyons, "Remanufacturing by design, the missing link," Prod Invent Mgmt 1987, Vol.28, No.2, pp. 24-29.
-  C. Hageluken and T. V. Kerchhoven, "Improving resource recovery from e-scrap recycling -- a holistic approach," Proc. of the 6^rm th international symp. on Going Green Care Innovation, 2006.
-  T. Tasaki, A. Terazono, and Y. Moriguchi, "Effective assessment of Japanese recycling law for electrical home appliances -- four years after full enforcement of the law," Proceedings of the 2005 IEEE International Symposium on Electronics & the Environment, pp. 243-248, 2005.
-  E. Williams, "Environmental impacts in the production of personal computers," In: R. Kuehr, E. Williams (Eds.), "Computers and the Environment: Understanding and managing their impacts," Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003.
-  M. Tekawa, S. Miyamoto, and A. Inaba, "Life cycle assessment; an approach to environmentally friendly PCs," Proceedings of the 1997 IEEE International Symposium on Electronics and the Environment, pp. 125-130, 1997.
-  A. Yoshida, T. Tasaki, and A. Terazono, "Material flow of used PCs in Japan," Proceedings of the 2007 IEEE International Symposium on Electronics and the Environment, pp. 46-51, 2007.
-  J. Williams, "A review of electronics demanufacturing processes," Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Vol.47, pp. 195-208, 2006.
-  B. Bras and M. McIntosh, "Product, process, and organizational design for remanufacture -- an overview of research," Robotics and Computer Integrated Manufacturing, Vol.15, pp. 167-178, 1999.
-  T. Friedman, "The world is flat," Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2005.
-  A. Blinder, "Offshoring: the next industrial revolution?," Foreign Affairs, Vol.85, No.2, pp. 113-128, 2006.