An Exploratory Study on the Learning Mechanism of Global Leadership Competencies
Caroline BENTON∗1, Hirohisa NAGAI∗2, Hiroe TSUBAKI∗3, and Yasunobu KINO∗2
∗1University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki
∗2University of Tsukuba, 3-29-1 Otsuka, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo
∗3The Institute of Statistical Mathematics, 10-3 Midori-cho,Tachikawa-shi, Tokyo
Leading international business requires the learning of global leadership competencies that allow managers to flexibly navigate across cultures. This explorative study investigates the mechanism by which global leadership competencies are acquired from a meta-cognitive approach. Indepth interviews and a web-survey were conducted in Asian and Europe. Results confirmed that 1) all managers faced new and difficult challenges during international business assignments, 2) the necessary leadership competencies were both common and idiosyncratic across cultures, and 3) global managers, regardless of their nationalities, experienced “double-loop learning” while acquiring new global leadership competencies though “breakthrough experiences” during international business assignments.
-  D. S. Ridley, P. A. Schultz, R. S. Glanz, and C. E. Weinstein: “Self-regulated learning: the interactive influences ofmetacognitive awareness and goals setting,” J. of ExperimentalEducation, Vol.60, pp. 293-306, 1992.
-  J. G. Borkowski, L. K. S. Chan, and N. Muthukrishna: “AProcess-oriented Model of Metacognition: Links betweenMotivation and Executive Functioning,” G. Schraw and J.Impara, (Ed.), Issues in the Measurement of Metacognition,pp. 1-41, Lincoln, NB: University of Nebraska Press, 2000.
-  W. Winn and D. Snyder: “Cognitive perspectives in psychology,” D. H. Jonassen, (Ed.), Handbook of research for educational communications and technology, pp. 112-142, New York: Simon & Schuster MacMillan, 1996.
-  C. Argyris and D. A. Schön: “Organizational Learning:A Theory of Action Perspective,” Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1978.
-  C. Argyris and D. A. Schön: “Organizational Learning II:Theory, Method, and Practice,” Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1996.
-  C. Argyris: “Overcoming Organizational Defenses,” NeedhamHeights, MA: Allyn and Bacon, 1990.
-  C. C. Lundberg: “Planning the Executive Development Program,” California Management Review, Vol.15, No.1, pp. 1-15, Fall 1972.
-  R. E. Boyatzis: “Competencies in the 21st century,” J. of Management Development, Vol.27,Issue 1, pp. 5-12, 2008.
-  T. Jokinen: “Global leadership competencies: a review anddiscussion,” J. of European Industrial Training, Vol.29, Issue3, pp. 199-216, 2005.
-  H. Nagai: “Development of Future Asian Global Leaders:Vision, Framework, and Implications for APO Member Countries,” Asian Productivity Organization, 2008.
-  L. K. Woolsey: “The Critical Incident Technique: An InnovativeQualitative Method of Research,” Canadian J. ofCounseling, Vol.20, No.4, pp. 242-254, 1986.