single-dr.php

JDR Vol.18 No.7 pp. 700-707
(2023)
doi: 10.20965/jdr.2023.p0700

Paper:

Assessment of Ecosystem-Based Disaster Risk Reduction Strategies in Coastal Environments of Taiwan

Viola van Onselen ORCID Icon, Mucahid Mustafa Bayrak ORCID Icon, and Tsung-Yi Lin ORCID Icon

Department of Geography, National Taiwan Normal University (NTNU)
162 He Ping East Road, Section 1, Taipei 10610, Taiwan

Corresponding author

Received:
September 29, 2022
Accepted:
March 3, 2023
Published:
October 1, 2023
Keywords:
coastal hazards, Eco-DRR, sand dunes, windbreak forests, mangroves
Abstract

Taiwan’s rapid economic and industrial growth has put enormous pressure on its natural environment. This is especially visible in the coastal zone, where risks such as sea-level rise, coastal erosion, land subsidence, and flooding threaten the already vulnerable ecosystems. Ecosystem-based disaster risk reduction (Eco-DRR) is a management strategy that uses ecosystems to reduce disaster risks. While this type of strategy is promoted in the ‘Taiwan Coastal Zone Management Act’ (TCZMA), there is still a lack of data on the implementation of Eco-DRR methods in Taiwan. This study examines papers on policy analyses of the TCZMA, and five main barriers for implementation of Eco-DRR in Taiwan are identified. Subsequently, in order to assess Eco-DRR strategies in the coastal zone of Taiwan, case studies and evaluation data on ecosystem-based management strategies were assembled and evaluated. The results of this study show that initial strategies to plant mangroves for reduction of wave energy have not always been successful; in certain areas they were removed again due to invasiveness in endemic wetland ecosystems. Moreover, artificially building sand dunes can have negative side effects, like oversteepening of the dune profile or deteriorating the natural dune dynamics. To address and tackle aforementioned challenges, a novel framework is introduced for improved uptake of Eco-DRR in Taiwan and beyond, and suggestions for future strategies are proposed.

Cite this article as:
V. van Onselen, M. Bayrak, and T. Lin, “Assessment of Ecosystem-Based Disaster Risk Reduction Strategies in Coastal Environments of Taiwan,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.18 No.7, pp. 700-707, 2023.
Data files:
References
  1. [1] Ministry of Justice, “Coastal Management Act,” Laws & Regulations Database of The Republic of China (Taiwan). https://law.moj.gov.tw/ENG/LawClass/LawAll.aspx?pcode=D0070222 [updated January 13, 2023; cited January 30, 2023]
  2. [2] UNDRR, “Ecosystem-Based Disaster Risk Reduction: Implementing Nature-based Solutions for Resilience,” United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction – Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok, Thailand, 2020.
  3. [3] M. D. Spalding, S. Ruffo, C. Lacambra, I. Meliane, L. Z. Hale, C. C. Shepard, and M. W. Beck, “The role of ecosystems in coastal protection: Adapting to climate change and coastal hazards,” Ocean & Coast. Manag., Vol.90, pp. 50-57, 2014. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2013.09.007
  4. [4] N. Rangel-Buitrago, W. J. Neal, J. Bonetti, G. Anfuso, V. N. de Jonge, “Vulnerability assessments as a tool for the coastal and marine hazards management: An overview,” Ocean & Coast. Manag., Vol.189, 105134, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2020.105134
  5. [5] M. Fujita and Y. Yamashiki, “Prioritization of Different Kinds of Natural Disasters and Low-Probability, High-Consequence Events,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.17, No.2, pp. 246-256, 2022. https://doi.org/10.20965/jdr.2022.p0246
  6. [6] C.-L. Chen, T.-C. Lee, and C.-H. Liu, “Beyond sectoral management: Enhancing Taiwan’s coastal management framework through a new dedicated law,” Ocean & Coast. Manag., Vol.169, pp. 157-164, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2018.12.022
  7. [7] W.-P. Huang, L.-K. Chien, and L.-H. Lee, “Risk maps and coastal defense criteria in Taiwan,” J. of Marine Science and Technology, Vol.24, No.6, pp. 1105-1114, 2016. https://doi.org/10.6119/JMST-016-1128-1
  8. [8] T.-W. Hsu, I.-F. Tseng, T.-Y. Lin, C.-Y. Shin, and S.-H. Ou, “Review of countermeasures against beach erosion on the Taiwanese coast,” Coastal Management, Vol.36, No.3, pp. 274-293, 2008. https://doi.org/10.1080/08920750801968678
  9. [9] A. Gracia, N. Rangel-Buitrago, J. A. Oakley, and A. T. Williams, “Use of ecosystems in coastal erosion management,” Ocean & Coast. Manag., Vol.156, pp. 277-289, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2017.07.009
  10. [10] N. Seddon, “Harnessing the potential of nature-based solutions for mitigating and adapting to climate change,” Science, Vol.376, pp. 1410-1416, 2022. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.abn9668
  11. [11] K. Sudmeier-Rieux, T. Arce-Mojica, H. J. Boehmer et al., “Scientific evidence for ecosystem-based disaster risk reduction,” Nat. Sustain., Vol.4, No.9, pp. 803-810, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41893-021-00732-4
  12. [12] A. Triyanti and E. Chu, “A survey of governance approaches to ecosystem-based disaster risk reduction: Current gaps and future directions,” Int. J. of Disaster Risk Reduction, Vol.32, pp. 11-21, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2017.11.005
  13. [13] H.-S. Chung, “Recent Developments and Challenges of Ocean Laws in Taiwan,” Asia-Pacific J. of Ocean Law and Policy, Vol.2, No.2, pp. 338-346, 2017. https://doi.org/10.1163/24519391-00202011
  14. [14] W.-P. Huang, J.-C. Hsu, C.-S. Chen, and C.-J. Ye, “The study of the coastal management criteria based on risk assessment: A case study on Yunlin coast, Taiwan,” Water, Vol.10, No.8, 988, 2018. https://doi.org/10.3390/w10080988
  15. [15] Y.-C. Shih, “Coastal Management and Implementation in Taiwan,” J. of Coastal Zone Management, Vol.19, No.4, 2016. https://doi.org/10.4172/2473-3350.1000437
  16. [16] Ocean Conservation Administration, “Introduction to Taiwan’s marine protected areas,” 2021. https://www.oca.gov.tw/en/home.jsp?id=99&parentpath=0,5 [Accessed September 10, 2022]
  17. [17] T.-W. Hsu, T.-Y. Lin, and I.-F. Tseng, “Human Impact on Coastal Erosion in Taiwan,” J. Coast Res., Vol.234, pp. 961-973, 2007. https://doi.org/10.2112/04-0353R.1
  18. [18] K. Satake, C. McLean, and I. Alcántara-Ayala, “Understanding disaster risk: The role of science and technology,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.13, No.7, pp. 1168-1176, 2018. https://doi.org/10.20965/jdr.2018.p1168
  19. [19] C. M. Duarte, I. J. Losada, I. E. Hendriks, I. Mazarrasa, and N. Marbà, “The role of coastal plant communities for climate change mitigation and adaptation,” Nat. Clim. Chang., Vol.3, No.11, pp. 961-968, 2013. https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate1970
  20. [20] H.-L. Hsieh, P.-F. Lin, and C.-P. Chen, “Coastal Wetlands Conservation Strategies Based on Mangroves and the Fiddler Crab Habitat Requirements in Taiwan,” ISLANDS of the WORLD VIII Int. Conf., 2016.
  21. [21] S.-H. Pan, C.-W. Ho, C.-W. Lin, S.-C. Huang, and H.-J. Lin, “Differential response of macrobenthic abundance and community composition to mangrove vegetation,” Forests, Vol.12, No.10, 1403, 2021. https://doi.org/10.3390/f12101403
  22. [22] Y.-L. Kuo, H.-H. Wang, S.-H. Peng, and Y.-P. Yang, “Composition, structure, and preliminary restoration efforts of a tropical coastal forest at Siangjiaowan, Southern Taiwan,” Taiwan J. of Forest Science, Vol.29, No.4, pp. 267-284. 2014.
  23. [23] T.-M. Lee, “Monitoring the dynamics of coastal vegetation in southwestern Taiwan,” Environ. Monit. Assess., Vol.111, Nos.1-3, pp. 307-323, 2005. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-005-0209-8
  24. [24] T. Y. Lin and J. Y. Liou, “Lessons learned from two coastal dune reconstruction experiments in Taiwan,” J. Coast. Res., Vol.65, Vol.sp1, pp. 320-325, 2013. https://doi.org/10.2112/SI65-055.1
  25. [25] W. P. Huang and J. Z. Yim, “Sand dune restoration experiments at Bei-Men Coast, Taiwan,” Ecol. Eng., Vol.73, pp. 409-420, 2014. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2014.09.038
  26. [26] H.-M. Lin, S.-M. Shen, T.-Y. Lin, S.-C. Liaw, and Y.-C. Chung, “A study on the industrialized coastal change and degradation of Dayuan-Guanyin in Taoyuan county,” Proc. of the Chinese Geographical Society, pp. 1-13, 2011.
  27. [27] J.-T. Lee, S.-M. Tsai, and M.-J. Lee, “Uprooting resistance of two tropical tree species for sand dune stabilization,” Afr. J. Agric. Res., Vol.12, No.45, pp. 3214-3220, 2017. https://doi.org/10.5897/AJAR2017.12715
  28. [28] S. Crook, “Environmental Impact Assessment: Holding back the sea, one tree at a time,” Taipei Times [Internet]. 2020. https://taipeitimes.com/News/feat/archives/2020/11/11/2003746713 [Accessed November 11, 2022]
  29. [29] N. Seddon, “Harnessing the potential of nature-based solutions for mitigating and adapting to climate change,” Science, Vol.376, No.6600, pp. 1410-1416, 2022. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.abn9668
  30. [30] L. Mabon, L. Barkved, K. de Bruin, and W.-Y. Shih, “Whose knowledge counts in nature-based solutions? Understanding epistemic justice for nature-based solutions through a multi-city comparison across Europe and Asia,” Environ. Sci. Policy, Vol.136, pp. 652-664, 2022. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2022.07.025
  31. [31] N. Doswald and M. Estrella, “Promoting ecosystems for disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation,” UNEP discussion paper, 2015.
  32. [32] R. DasGupta and R. Shaw, “Utilizing ecosystem services for disaster risk reduction: The role of “scale” and “context”,” R. Shaw, K. Shiwaku, and T. Izumi (Eds.), “Science and Technology in Disaster Risk Reduction in Asia: Potentials and Challenges,” Elsevier, pp. 197-206, 2017. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-812711-7.00012-2
  33. [33] S. A. Dalimunthe, “Who manages space? Eco-DRR and the local community,” Sustainability, Vol.10, No.6, 1705, 2018. https://doi.org/10.3390/su10061705
  34. [34] C. C. Anderson and F. G. Renaud, “A review of public acceptance of nature-based solutions: The ‘why’, ‘when’, and ‘how’ of success for disaster risk reduction measures,” Ambio, Vol.50, pp. 1552-1573, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13280-021-01502-4
  35. [35] W.-T. Liang, J.-C. Lee, K. H. Chen, and N.-C. Hsiao, “Citizen earthquake science in Taiwan: From science to hazard mitigation,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.12, No.6, pp. 1174-1181, 2017. https://doi.org/10.20965/jdr.2017.p1174
  36. [36] A. K. Gain, M. M. Rahman, M. S. Sadik, M. S. G. Adnan, S. Ahmad, S. M. M. Ahsan et al., “Overcoming challenges for implementing nature-based solutions in deltaic environments: Insights from the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta in Bangladesh,” Environmental Research Letters, Vol.17, No.6, 064052, 2022. https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/ac740a
  37. [37] A. McVittie, L. Cole, A. Wreford, A. Sgobbi, and B. Yordi, “Ecosystem-based solutions for disaster risk reduction: Lessons from European applications of ecosystem-based adaptation measures,” Int. J. of Disaster Risk Reduction, Vol.32, pp. 42-54, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdrr.2017.12.014
  38. [38] C. C. Anderson, F. G. Renaud, S. Hanscomb, K. E. Munro, A. Gonzalez-Ollauri, C. S. Thomson et al., “Public Acceptance of Nature-Based Solutions for Natural Hazard Risk Reduction: Survey Findings From Three Study Sites in Europe,” Front. Environ. Sci., Vol.9, 2021. https://doi.org/10.3389/fenvs.2021.678938
  39. [39] F. Gesing, “The politics of artificial dunes: Sustainable coastal protection measures and contested socio-natural objects,” Die Erde – J. of the Geographical Society of Berlin, Vol.150, No.3, pp. 145-157, 2019. https://doi.org/10.12854/erde-2019-423
  40. [40] A. E. Sutton-Grier, K. Wowk, and H. Bamford, “Future of our coasts: The potential for natural and hybrid infrastructure to enhance the resilience of our coastal communities, economies and ecosystems,” Environmental Science and Policy, Vol.51, pp. 137-148, 2015. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2015.04.006

*This site is desgined based on HTML5 and CSS3 for modern browsers, e.g. Chrome, Firefox, Safari, Edge, Opera.

Last updated on Mar. 01, 2024