Collaborative Development of Green Infrastructure: Urban Flood Control Measures on Small-Scale Private Lands
Fumiko Taura*,, Masaki Ohme**, and Yukihiro Shimatani*
*Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University
744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka, Fukuoka 819-0395, Japan
**Graduate School of Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan
Focusing on green infrastructure (GI), which utilizes nature’s diverse resources, we developed urban flood control measures on three small-scale private tracts in Tokyo and Fukuoka in Japan, experiencing high rainfall. In addition, we implemented these measures and verified the possibility of introduction. Using a target rainfall of 100 mm/h and previous rainfall data, we set our goal of reducing runoff from each site below the capacity of a public sewage pipe. Implementation was conducted by assessing the soil infiltration rate and developing and installing rain gardens and storage layers using crushed stones. These measures satisfied the initially set goals, drastically reducing runoff at all three sites. The target installation cost was set at 100,000 yen per cubic meter of runoff reduction. The target costs were met in the two Fukuoka sites but not at the Tokyo site. The key reasons were the high costs of removing non-permeable surfaces or improving the soil of compacted surfaces, which called for a process to balance the runoff reduction and cost to determine the most effective plan for implementing GI in urban areas. The development and implementation processes were conducted in collaboration with the house owners and concerned parties; the workshops produced constructive ideas being unconstrained by conventional thinking. Visitors highly appreciated ideas related to using water because the techniques were derived from the Japanese culture of lifestyle. Thus, introducing attractive and effective GI may be possible through collaboration. Additionally, sharing experiences led to the formation of new community ties, supporting post-implementation site maintenance.
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