Microbes and Crewed Space Habitat
Nobuyasu Yamaguchi and Masao Nasu
Environmental Science and Microbiology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University
1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan
Microbes exist everywhere, and studies have demonstrated the presence of viable microorganisms in a crewed space habitat. Microorganisms within space habitats pose potential hazards to crew health and potentially damage hardware. Continuing successful long-term space habitation requires fundamental information on microbiological safety for avoiding biohazards in space. We discuss the importance of researching microbes in crewed space habitats and of monitoring microbes on the International Space Station (ISS). We also review environmental microbiology perspectives in crewed space habitats and the microbiology of the space environment (astromicrobiology).
-  M. W. Beijerinck, “De infusies en de ontdekking der backteri”en,” in Jaarboek van de Koninklijke Akademie v. Wetenschappen. Amsterdam: Müuller, 1913.
-  L. G. M. Baas-Becking, “Geobiologie of Inleiding Tot de Milieukunde,” Hague: W. P. van Stockum and Zoon N. V., 1934.
-  V. A. Castro, A. N. Thrasher, M. Healy, C. M. Ott, and D. L. Pierson, “Microbial characterization during the early habitation of the International Space Station,” Microbial Ecology, Vol.47, pp. 119-126, 2004.
-  N. D. Novikova, “Review of the knowledge of microbial contamination of the Russian manned spacecraft,” Microbial Ecology, Vol.47, pp. 127-132, 2004.
-  C. M. Ott, R. J. Bruce, and D. L. Pierson, “Microbial characterization of free floating condensate aboard the Mir space station,” Microbial Ecology, Vol.47, pp. 133-136, 2004.
-  N. Novikova, P. De Boever, S. Poddubko, E. Deshevaya, N. Polikarpov, N. Rakova, I. Coninx, and M. Mergeay, “Survey of environmental biocontamination on board the International Space Station,” Research in Microbiology, Vol.157, pp. 5-12, 2006.
-  R. Van Houdt, K. Mijnendonckx, and N. Leys, “Microbial contamination monitoring and control during human space missions,” Planetary and Space Sciences, Vol.60, pp. 115-120, 2012.
-  J. W. Wilson, C. M. Ott, K. Höner zu Bentrup, R. Ramamurthy, L. Quick, S. Porwollik et al., “Space flight alters bacterial gene expression and virulence and reveals a role for global regulator Hfq,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol.104, pp. 16299-16304, 2007.
-  A. T. Borchers, C. L. Keen, and M. E. Gershwin, “Microgravity and immune responsiveness: implications for space travel,” Nutrition, Vol.18, pp. 889-898, 2002.
-  N. Yamaguchi, M. Roberts, S. Castro, C. Oubre, K. Makimura, N. Leys, E. Grohmann, T. Sugita, T. Ichijo, and M. Nasu, “Microbial monitoring of crewed habitats in space – Current status and future perspectives,” Microbes and Environments, Vol.29, pp. 250-260, 2014.
-  National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), “Human Health, Life Support and Habitation Systems – Technology Area 06,” 2010, http://www.nasa.gov/pdf/500436maintextunderscore TA06-HHLSHS-DRAFT-Nov2010-A.pdf [accessed October 20, 2015]
-  European Space Agency (ESA), “Towards Human Exploration of Space: a European Strategy [THESEUS] Roadmap,” 2012, http://www.theseus-eu.org/fileadmin/Docs/Egtextunderscore reportstextunderscore roadmap/ RoadMaptextunderscore web.pdf [accessed October 20, 2015]
-  Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), “Kibo Utilization Scenario toward 2020 in the field of Life Science,” 2012, http://iss.jaxa.jp/en/kiboexp/scenario/pdf/life%20science.pdf [accessed October 20, 2015]
-  K. Venkateswaran, M. T. La Duc, and G. Horneck, “Microbial existence in controlled habitats and their resistance to space conditions,” Microbes and Environments, Vol.29, pp. 243-249, 2014.
-  M. Ott, D. Pierson, M. Shirakawa, F. Tanigaki, M. Hida, T. Yamazaki, T. Shimazu, and N. Ishioka, “Space habitation and microbiology: status and roadmap of space agencies,” Microbes and Environments, Vol.29, pp. 239-242, 2014.
-  D. Pierson, D. J. Botkin, R. J. Bruce, V. A. Castro, M. J. Smith, C. M. Oubre, and C. M. Ott, “Microbial monitoring of the International Space Station,” in Environmental Monitoring: A Comprehensive Handbook, J. Moldenhauer (Eds.), River Grove: DHI Publishing, pp. 1-27, 2012.