single-dr.php

JDR Vol.4 No.5 pp. 315-321
(2009)
doi: 10.20965/jdr.2009.p0315

Review:

Diagnostic Systems for Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers and Emerging Viral Infections Prepared in the National Institute of Infectious Diseases

Masayuki Saijo, Shigeru Morikawa, and Ichiro Kurane

Department of Virology 1, National Institute of Infectious Diseases
1-23-1 Toyama Shinjuku, Tokyo 162-8640, Japan

Received:
June 2, 2009
Accepted:
July 9, 2009
Published:
October 1, 2009
Keywords:
viral hemorrhagic fevers, diagnosis, biosafety level 4-pathogens, preparedness, recombinant nucleoproteins
Abstract

Given the real possibility of hemorrhagic fever viruses such as ebola (EBOV), Marburg (MARV), Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHFV), and Lassa (LASV) viruses being introduced into virus-free nations such as Japan, the need arises for concomitant diagnostics even where such diseases are not endemic. Hemorrhagic fever viruses classified as biosafety level-4 (BSL-4) pathogens can only be manipulated in BSL-4 laboratories, making it difficult for nations such as Japan, having no BSL-4 laboratories, to develop required diagnostic assays. To circumvent this problem, diagnostic assays with recombinant viral antigens have been developed at the National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan (NIID). Diagnostics such as enzyme immunoassays for detecting viral hemorrhagic antibodies and antigens were developed using recombinant nucleoproteins (rNPs) of EBOV, MARV, CCHFV, and LASV for use as antigens. Immunoglobulin-G (IgG)-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and indirect immunofluorescence assay using rNPs were confirmed to be highly sensitive and specific in detecting these antibodies. Sandwich antigen (Ag) capture ELISA was also developed for detecting these antigens. The sections that follow detail diagnostics developed at the NIID.

Cite this article as:
Masayuki Saijo, Shigeru Morikawa, and Ichiro Kurane, “Diagnostic Systems for Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers and Emerging Viral Infections Prepared in the National Institute of Infectious Diseases,” J. Disaster Res., Vol.4, No.5, pp. 315-321, 2009.
Data files:
References
  1. [1] H. Feldmann, S. Jones, H. D. Klenk, and H. J. Schnittler, “Ebola virus: from discovery to vaccine,” Nat. Rev. Immunol., Vol.3, pp. 677-685, 2003.
  2. [2] T. W. Geisbert and P. B. Jahrling, “Exotic emerging viral diseases: progress and challenges,” Nat. Med., Vol.10, S110-121, 2004.
  3. [3] A. Sanchez, T. G. Ksiazek, P. E. Rollin, M. E. Miranda, S. G. Trappier, A. S. Khan, C. J. Peters, and S. T. Nichol, “Detection and molecular characterization of Ebola viruses causing disease in human and nonhuman primates,” J. Infect. Dis., Vol.179, Suppl 1, S164-169, 1999.
  4. [4] J. S. Towner, T. K. Sealy, M. L. Khristova, C. G. Albarino, S. Conlan, S. A. Reeder, P. L. Quan, W. I. Lipkin, R. Downing, J. W. Tappero, S. Okware, J. Lutwama, B. Bakamutumaho, J. Kayiwa, J. A. Comer, P. E. Rollin, T. G. Ksiazek, and S. T. Nichol, “Newly discovered ebola virus associated with hemorrhagic fever outbreak in Uganda,” PLoS Pathog 4:e1000212, 2008.
  5. [5] D. E. Carey, G. E. Kemp, H. A. White, L. Pinneo, R. F. Addy, A. L. Fom, G. Stroh, J. Casals, and B. E. Henderson, “Lassa fever. Epidemiological aspects of the 1970 epidemic, Jos, Nigeria,” Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., Vol.66, pp. 402-408, 1972.
  6. [6] I. S. Lukashevich, J. C. Clegg, and K. Sidibe, “Lassa virus activity in Guinea: distribution of human antiviral antibody defined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with recombinant antigen,” J. Med. Virol., Vol.40, pp. 210-217, 1993.
  7. [7] J. B. McCormick, P. A. Webb, J. W. Krebs, K. M. Johnson, and E. S. Smith, “A prospective study of the epidemiology and ecology of Lassa fever,” J. Infect. Dis., Vol.155, pp. 437-444, 1987.
  8. [8] T. P. Monath, “Lassa fever: review of epidemiology and epizootiology,” Bull World Health Organ, Vol.52, pp. 577-592, 1975.
  9. [9] T. P. Monath, P. E. Mertens, R. Patton, C. R. Moser, J. J. Baum, L. Pinneo, G. W. Gary, and R. E. Kissling, “A hospital epidemic of Lassa fever in Zorzor, Liberia, March-April 1972,” Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., Vol.22, pp. 773-779, 1973.
  10. [10] M. H. Monson, J. D. Frame, P. B. Jahrling, and K. Alexander, “Endemic Lassa fever in Liberia. I. Clinical and epidemiological aspects at Curran Lutheran Hospital, Zorzor, Liberia,” Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., Vol.78, pp. 549-553, 1984.
  11. [11] C. J. Peters, “Arenaviruses,” In Clinical Virology 2nd edition, D. D. Richman, R. J.Whitely, and F. G. Hayden (Eds.), pp. 949-970, Washington DC, ASM Press, 2002.
  12. [12] C. S. Schmaljohn and S. T. Nichol, “Bunyaviridae,” in Fields Virology 5th Edition, D. M. Knipe and P. M. Howley (Eds.), pp. 1741-1790, Philadelphia, Lippincott-Williams & Wilkins, 2007.
  13. [13] Anonymous, “Lassa fever, imported case, Netherlands,” Wkly Epidemiol. Rec. Vol.75, p. 265, 2000.
  14. [14] Anonymous, “Lassa fever, case imported to Germany,” Wkly Epidemiol. Rec. Vol.75, pp. 17-18, 2000.
  15. [15] S. Gunther, P. Emmerich, T. Laue, O. Kuhle, M. Asper, A. Jung, T. Grewing, J. ter Meulen, and H. Schmitz, “Imported Lassa fever in Germany: molecular characterization of a new lassa virus strain,” Emerg. Infect. Dis., Vol.6, pp. 466-476, 2000.
  16. [16] Y. Hirabayashi, S. Oka, H. Goto, K. Shimada, T. Kurata, S. P. Fisher-Hoch, and J. B. McCormick, “An imported case of Lassa fever with late appearance of polyserositis,” J. Infect. Dis., Vol.158, pp. 872-875, 1988.
  17. [17] B. Jeffs, “A clinical guide to viral haemorrhagic fevers: Ebola, Marburg and Lassa,” Trop. Doct., Vol.36, pp. 1-4, 2006.
  18. [18] A. M. Macher and M. S. Wolfe, “Historical Lassa fever reports and 30-year clinical update,” Emerg. Infect. Dis., Vol.12, pp. 835-837, 2006.
  19. [19] M. S. Mahdy, W. Chiang, B. McLaughlin, K. Derksen, B. H. Truxton, and K. Neg, “Lassa fever: the first confirmed case imported into Canada,” Can. Dis. Wkly Rep., Vol.15, pp. 193-198, 1989.
  20. [20] R. Swanepoel, S. B. Smit, P. E. Rollin, P. Formenty, P. A. Leman, A. Kemp, F. J. Burt, A. A. Grobbelaar, J. Croft, D. G. Bausch, H. Zeller, H. Leirs, L. E. Braack, M. L. Libande, S. Zaki, S. T. Nichol, T. G. Ksiazek, and J. T. Paweska, “Studies of reservoir hosts for Marburg virus,” Emerg. Infect. Dis., Vol.13, pp. 1847-1851, 2007.
  21. [21] E. M. Leroy, B. Kumulungui, X. Pourrut, P. Rouquet, A. Hassanin, P. Yaba, A. Delicat, J. T. Paweska, J. P. Gonzalez, and R. Swanepoel, “Fruit bats as reservoirs of Ebola virus,” Nature, Vol.438, pp. 575-576, 2005.
  22. [22] M. A. Bwaka, M. J. Bonnet, P. Calain, R. Colebunders, A. De Roo, Y. Guimard, K. R. Katwiki, K. Kibadi, M. A. Kipasa, K. J. Kuvula, B. B. Mapanda, M. Massamba, K. D. Mupapa, J. J. Muyembe-Tamfum, E. Ndaberey, C. J. Peters, P. E. Rollin, E. Van den Enden, and E. Van den Enden, “Ebola hemorrhagic fever in Kikwit, Democratic Republic of the Congo: clinical observations in 103 patients,” J. Infect. Dis., Vol.179, Suppl 1, S1-7, 1999.
  23. [23] P. Formenty, C. Hatz, B. Le Guenno, A. Stoll, P. Rogenmoser, and A. Widmer, “Human infection due to Ebola virus, subtype Cote d’Ivoire: clinical and biologic presentation,” J. Infect. Dis., Vol.179, Suppl 1, S48-53, 1999.
  24. [24] C. J. Peters and J. W. LeDuc, “An introduction to Ebola: the virus and the disease,” J. Infect. Dis., Vol.179, Suppl 1, ix-xvi, 1999.
  25. [25] A. Sanchez, T. W. Geisbert, and H. Feldmann, “Filoviridae: Marburg and Ebola viruses,” in Fields Virology 5th Edition, D. M. Knipe and P. M. Howley (Eds.), pp. 1409-1448, Philadelphia, Lippincott-Williams & Wilkins, 2007.
  26. [26] E. T. Bowen, G. S. Platt, D. I. Simpson, L. B. McArdell, and R. T. Raymond, “Ebola haemorrhagic fever: experimental infection of monkeys,” Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., Vol.72, pp. 188-191, 1978.
  27. [27] K. M. Johnson, J. V. Lange, P. A. Webb, and F. A. Murphy, “Isolation and partial characterisation of a new virus causing acute haemorrhagic fever in Zaire,” Lancet, Vol.1, pp. 569-571, 1977.
  28. [28] World_Health_Organization, “Ebola haemorrhagic fever in Sudan, 1976. Report of a WHO/International Study Team,” Bull World Health Organ, Vol.56, pp. 247-270, 1978.
  29. [29] World_Health_Organization, “Ebola haemorrhagic fever in Zaire, 1976,” Bull World Health Organ, Vol.56, pp. 271-293, 1978.
  30. [30] A. S. Khan, F. K. Tshioko, D. L. Heymann, B. Le Guenno, P. Nabeth, B. Kerstiens, Y. Fleerackers, P. H. Kilmarx, G. R. Rodier, O. Nkuku, P. E. Rollin, A. Sanchez, S. R. Zaki, R. Swanepoel, O. Tomori, S. T. Nichol, C. J. Peters, J. J. Muyembe-Tamfum, and T. G. Ksiazek, “The reemergence of Ebola hemorrhagic fever, Democratic Republic of the Congo, 1995, Commission de Lutte contre les Epidemies a Kikwit,” J. Infect. Dis. Vol.179, Suppl 1, S76-86, 1999.
  31. [31] H. Feldmann, W. Slenczka, and H. D. Klenk, “Emerging and reemerging of filoviruses,” Arch. Virol. Suppl 11, pp. 77-100, 1996.
  32. [32] M. C. Georges-Courbot, A. Sanchez, C. Y. Lu, S. Baize, E. Leroy, J. Lansout-Soukate, C. Tevi-Benissan, A. J. Georges, S. G. Trappier, S. R. Zaki, R. Swanepoel, P. A. Leman, P. E. Rollin, C. J, Peters, S. T. Nichol, and T. G. Ksiazek, “Isolation and phylogenetic characterization of Ebola viruses causing different outbreaks in Gabon,” Emerg. Infect. Dis., Vol.3, pp. 59-62, 1997.
  33. [33] B. Le Guenno, P. Formenty, and C. Boesch, “Ebola virus outbreaks in the Ivory Coast and Liberia, 1994-1995,” Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol., Vol.235, pp. 77-84, 1999.
  34. [34] V. Volchkov, V. Volchkova, C. Eckel, H. D. Klenk, M. Bouloy, B. LeGuenno, and H. Feldmann, “Emergence of subtype Zaire Ebola virus in Gabon,” Virology, Vol.232, pp. 139-144, 1997.
  35. [35] World Health Organization, “Outbreak of Ebola haemorrhagic fever in Gabon,” Commun Dis. Rep. CDR Wkly, Vol.6, pp. 75-78, 1996.
  36. [36] World Health Organization, “Outbreak of Ebola haemorrhagic fever, Uganda, August 2000-January 2001,” Wkly Epidemiol. Rec. Vol.76, pp. 41-46, 2001.
  37. [37] World Health Organization, “Outbreak of Ebola hemorrhagic fever - Zaire, 1995,” Epidemiol. Bull. Vol.16, p. 16, 1995.
  38. [38] World Health Organization, “Outbreak(s) of Ebola haemorrhagic fever in the Republic of the Congo, January-April 2003,” Wkly Epidemiol. Rec., Vol.78, pp. 285-289, 2003.
  39. [39] World Health Organization, “Outbreak(s) of Ebola hemorrhagic fever, Congo and Gabon, October 2001 to July 2002,” Can. Commun Dis. Rep., Vol.29, pp. 129-133, 2003.
  40. [40] P. B. Jahrling, T. W. Geisbert, D. W. Dalgard, E. D. Johnson, T. G. Ksiazek, W. C. Hall, and C. J. Peters, “Preliminary report: isolation of Ebola virus from monkeys imported to USA,” Lancet, Vol.335, pp. 502-505, 1990.
  41. [41] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Ebola virus infection in imported primates - Virginia, 1989,” MMWR Morb. Mortal Wkly Rep., Vol.38, pp. 831-832, 1989.
  42. [42] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Ebola-Reston virus infection among quarantined nonhuman primates - Texas, 1996,” MMWR Morb. Mortal Wkly Rep., Vol.45, pp. 314-316, 1996.
  43. [43] World Health Organization, “Viral haemorrhagic fever in imported monkeys,” Wkly Epidemiol. Rec., Vol.67, pp. 142-143, 1992.
  44. [44] G. A. Martini, H. G. Knauff, H. A. Schmidt, G. Mayer, and G. Baltzer, “On the hitherto unknown, in monkeys originating infectious disease: Marburg virus disease,” Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr., Vol.93, pp. 559-571, 1968.
  45. [45] J. L. Conrad, M. Isaacson, E. B. Smith, H. Wulff, M. Crees, P. Geldenhuys, and J. Johnston, “Epidemiologic investigation of Marburg virus disease, Southern Africa, 1975,” Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., Vol.27, pp. 1210-1215, 1978.
  46. [46] E. D. Johnson, B. K. Johnson, D. Silverstein, P. Tukei, T. W. Geisbert, A. N. Sanchez, and P. B. Jahrling, “Characterization of a new Marburg virus isolated from a 1987 fatal case in Kenya,” Arch. Virol. Suppl., Vol.11, pp. 101-114, 1996.
  47. [47] D. H. Smith, B. K. Johnson, M. Isaacson, R. Swanapoel, K. M. Johnson, M. Killey, A. Bagshawe, T. Siongok, and W. K. Keruga, “Marburg-virus disease in Kenya,” Lancet, Vol.1, pp. 816-820, 1982.
  48. [48] D. G. Bausch, M. Borchert, T. Grein, C. Roth, R. Swanepoel, M. L. Libande, A. Talarmin, E. Bertherat, J. J. Muyembe-Tamfum, B. Tugume, R. Colebunders, K. M. Konde, P. Pirad, L. L. Olinda, G. R. Rodier, P. Campbell, O. Tomori, T. G. Ksiazek, and P. E. Rollin, “Risk factors for Marburg hemorrhagic fever, Democratic Republic of the Congo,” Emerg. Infect. Dis., Vol.9, pp. 1531-1537, 2003.
  49. [49] H. Hoogstraal, “The epidemiology of tick-borne Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Asia, Europe, and Africa,” J. Med. Entomol., Vol.15, pp. 307-417, 1979.
  50. [50] M. J. Buchmeier, J.-C. de la Torre, and C. J. Peters, “Arenaviridae: The viruses and their replication,” in Fields Virology 5th Edition, D. M. Knipe and P. M. Howley (Eds.), pp. 1791-1828, Philadelphia, Lippincott-Williams & Wilkins, 2007.
  51. [51] M. Saijo, M. Niikura, S. Morikawa, T. G. Ksiazek, R. F. Meyer, C. J. Peters, and I. Kurane, “Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for detection of antibodies to Ebola and Marburg viruses using recombinant nucleoproteins,” J. Clin. Microbiol., Vol.39, pp. 1-7, 2001.
  52. [52] M. Saijo, T. Qing, M. Niikura, A. Maeda, T. Ikegami, C. Prehaud, I. Kurane, and S. Morikawa, “Recombinant nucleoprotein-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of immunoglobulin G antibodies to Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus,” J. Clin. Microbiol. Vol.40, pp. 1587-1591, 2002.
  53. [53] M. Saijo, Q. Tang, B. Shimayi, L. Han, Y. Zhang, M. Asiguma, D. Tianshu, A. Maeda, I. Kurane, and S. Morikawa, “Recombinant nucleoprotein-based serological diagnosis of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus infections,” J. Med. Virol., Vol.75, pp. 295-299, 2005.
  54. [54] M. Saijo, M. C. Georges-Courbot, P. Marianneau, V. Romanowski, S. Fukushi, T. Mizutani, A. J. Georges, T. Kurata, I. Kurane, and S. Morikawa, “Development of recombinant nucleoprotein-based diagnostic systems for Lassa fever,” Clin. Vaccine. Immunol., Vol.14, pp. 1182-1189, 2007.
  55. [55] T. Ikegami, M. Saijo, M. Niikura, M. E. Miranda, A. B. Calaor, M. Hernandez, D. L. Manalo, I. Kurane, Y. Yoshikawa, and S. Morikawa, “Immunoglobulin G enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using truncated nucleoproteins of Reston Ebola virus,” Epidemiol. Infect., Vol.130, pp. 533-539, 2003.
  56. [56] M. Saijo, M. Niikura, A. Maeda, T. Sata, T. Kurata, I. Kurane, and S. Morikawa, “Characterization of monoclonal antibodies to Marburg virus nucleoprotein (NP) that can be used for NP-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay,” J. Med. Virol., Vol.76, pp. 111-118, 2005.
  57. [57] M. Saijo, T. Qing, M. Niikura, A. Maeda, T. Ikegami, K. Sakai, C. Prehaud, I. Kurane, and S. Morikawa, “Immunofluorescence technique using HeLa cells expressing recombinant nucleoprotein for detection of immunoglobulin G antibodies to Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus,” J. Clin. Microbiol., Vol.40, pp. 372-375, 2002.
  58. [58] T. Ikegami, M. Saijo, M. Niikura, M. E. Miranda, A. B. Calaor, M. Hernandez, D. L. Manalo, I. Kurane, Y. Yoshikawa, and S. Morikawa, “Development of an immunofluorescence method for the detection of antibodies to Ebola virus subtype Reston by the use of recombinant nucleoprotein-expressing HeLa cells,” Microbiol. Immunol., Vol.46, pp. 633-638, 2002.
  59. [59] M. Saijo, M. Niikura, S. Morikawa, and I. Kurane, “Immunofluorescence method for detection of Ebola virus immunoglobulin G, using HeLa cells which express recombinant nucleoprotein,” J. Clin. Microbiol., Vol.39, pp. 776-778, 2001.
  60. [60] M. Niikura, T. Ikegami, M. Saijo, I. Kurane, M. E. Miranda, and S. Morikawa, “Detection of Ebola viral antigen by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using a novel monoclonal antibody to nucleoprotein,” J. Clin. Microbiol., Vol.39, pp. 3267-3271, 2001.
  61. [61] T. Ikegami, M. Niikura, M. Saijo, M. E. Miranda, A. B. Calaor, M. Hernandez, L. P. Acosta, D. L. Manalo, I. Kurane, Y. Yoshikawa, and S. Morikawa, “Antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for specific detection of Reston Ebolavirus nucleoprotein,” Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol., Vol.10, pp. 552-557, 2003.
  62. [62] M. Saijo, M. C. Georges-Courbot, S. Fukushi, T. Mizutani, M. Philippe, A. J. Georges, I. Kurane, and S. Morikawa, “Marburgvirus nucleoprotein-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using monoclonal antibodies to recombinant nucleoprotein: detection of authentic Marburgvirus,” Jpn. J. Infect. Dis., Vol.59, pp. 323-325, 2006.
  63. [63] M. Saijo, Q. Tang, B. Shimayi, L. Han, Y. Zhang, M. Asiguma, D. Tianshu, A. Maeda, I. Kurane, and S. Morikawa, “Antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the diagnosis of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever using a novel monoclonal antibody,” J. Med. Virol., Vol.77, pp. 83-88, 2005.
  64. [64] S. R. Zaki, W. J. Shieh, P. W. Greer, C. S. Goldsmith, T. Ferebee, J. Katshitshi, F. K. Tshioko, M. A. Bwaka, R. Swanepoel, P. Calain, A. S. Khan, E. Lloyd, P. E. Rollin, T. G. Ksiazek, and C. J. Peters, “A novel immunohistochemical assay for the detection of Ebola virus in skin: implications for diagnosis, spread, and surveillance of Ebola hemorrhagic fever. Commission de Lutte contre les Epidemies a Kikwit,” J. Infect. Dis., Vol.179, Suppl 1, S36-47, 1999.

*This site is desgined based on HTML5 and CSS3 for modern browsers, e.g. Chrome, Firefox, Safari, Edge, Opera.

Last updated on Oct. 21, 2021